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    Re: SOHO LASCO C2 Latest Image

    Post  Carol on Tue May 05, 2015 8:17 pm


    METEORS FROM HALLEY'S COMET: The Canadian Meteor Orbit Radar (CMOR) is detecting a "hot spot" in the sky today. Note the circled region labeled "ETA" in the May 5th radar map below. This is a sign that the eta Aquariid meteor shower is underway.

    Eta Aquariid meteors come from Halley's Comet. Although the comet itself is more than 5 billion km from Earth, bits of dust from Halley are in the neighborhood. Every year, Earth crosses the debris zone in early May, and we see a meteor shower. The 2015 eta Aquariid display is expected to peak on May 5-6 with 10 to 50 meteors per hour.

    The best time to look is during the hours before local dawn on May 6th. Patient sky watchers could see dozens of meteors despite glare from the waning full Moon.


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    Re: SOHO LASCO C2 Latest Image

    Post  Carol on Wed May 06, 2015 10:15 am

    A pulse of UV radiation and X-rays from the flare caused a strong radio blackout over the Pacific side of Earth. This map shows the extent of the blackout, which affected frequencies below 20 MHz. Mariners, aviators, and ham radio operators are the type of people who might have noticed the disturbance.

    The explosion also hurled a CME into space: movie. Traveling faster than 1100 km/s (2.5 million mph), the expanding cloud does not appear to be heading for Earth. Solar flare alerts: text, voice

    In addition to causing a radio blackout, the flare also caused a radio burst. Immediately after the flare, a roar of static bellowed from the loudspeakers of shortwave receivers on Pacific isles and western parts of North America. Amateur radio astronomer Thomas Ashcraft of New Mexico recorded the outburst:

    http://www.spaceweather.com/images2015/06may15/SrMay052015_x2.7_2207ut22.23MHz_Ashcraft.mp3?PHPSESSID=sd080btd88hm9g5elu4k5bu5e0

    "The sound file is in stereo with one channel at 22 MHz and the other at 23 MHz," says Ashcraft. "It is very intricate if listened to with headphones."

    What caused this burst of "solar static"? The same magnetic explosion that caused the flare also produced beams of electrons. As the electrons sliced through the sun's atmosphere, they generated a ripple of radio-loud plasma waves. Astronomers classify solar radio bursts into five types; this one was a mixture of Type III and Type V.


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    Re: SOHO LASCO C2 Latest Image

    Post  Carol on Wed May 06, 2015 10:20 am


    Scientists spot evidence for ‘superflares,’ blowing away anything we’ve ever seen
    http://www.washingtonpost.com/blogs/capital-weather-gang/wp/2015/05/05/scientists-spot-evidence-for-superflares-blowing-away-anything-weve-ever-seen/
    Could the sun unleash a flare of such a magnitude that it dwarfs anything that humans have ever observed? Yes, says Kazunari Shibata, an astrophysicist from Kyoto University in Japan, and it could have incredible consequences.

    At the recent Space Weather Workshop in Boulder, Colo., sponsored by the National Science Foundation, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and NASA, Shibata gave a sobering presentation on the possibility of “superflares,” solar flares that contain energy 1,000 times larger than what has been observed in modern times.

    [How a solar storm two years ago nearly caused a catastrophe on Earth]

    Solar flares are a common type of solar eruption, an explosive release of the magnetic energy concentrated in sunspots. Flares are an everyday occurrence – small ones – and can range in energy output over many orders of magnitude. The NOAA Space Weather Scales classifies flares by peak X-ray output on a 1-5 scale (R1-R5), with a flare rated “extreme” (R5) said to occur less than once a solar cycle. In this current cycle, no flare has exceeded the strong (R3) level.

    Solar flares are known to cause blackouts of radio communications on the sunlit side of the Earth and disrupt radio navigation services. They provide the energy for a class of energetic particle acceleration that results in solar radiation storms that can disturb or damage satellites. They are also sometimes associated with geomagnetic storms that, if severe enough, can disturb the Earth’s electrical grid.

    [Watch: Kilauea volcano lava explosion]

    Shibata presented a statistical analysis suggesting a superflare, off-the-charts of our current classification system, should occur about once every 10,000 years. But how do we know if the record of satellite observations of flare energy go back only to the mid-1970s?

    The answer lies outside our solar system.

    The NASA Kepler mission, launched in 2009, has been looking for Earth-like planets orbiting other stars. Kepler has seen a lot of stars and has shown, through further analysis, that many have properties similar to our sun. In fact, scientists have observed over 80,000 such stars. Hiroyuki Maehara and colleagues published a study (Nature, 2012) that found — after painstakingly analyzing the Kepler observations over a period of 120 days — evidence for 365 “superflares” on these stars. These eruptions are thought to be physically similar to what our sun produces, drawing the energy from the magnetic field in sunspots.

    Maehara’s work suggests that a superflare could occur every 800 to 5,000 years on Earth, Shibata said — which is more frequent than his statistical model predicts.

    The largest known solar flare to affect Earth in the last 200 years occurred in 1859, known as the “Carrington” event, named after Richard Carrington, the astronomer who observed it. It produced auroras as far south as Cuba, El Salvador and Hawaii. A National Academy of Sciences study in 2008 said a similar event happening today could produce a devastating economic impact exceeding $2 trillion — largely because of damage to the electrical grid and satellite systems.

    One wonders about the impact of a superflare — more powerful than the Carrington event — on Earth today given the technologies we rely on, and their vulnerabilities.

    [Are we ready yet for potentially disastrous impacts of space weather?]

    When Lord Carrington observed through an eyepiece the big flare in 1859, who knew of the satellite, power grid, time and frequency standard, even airline issues that we face now? An off-the-charts flare up to 1,000 times larger than the largest seen in our lifetimes — blowing the top off the NOAA scale — make this a scary question….

    The author, Joe Kunches, is director of Space Weather Services at Atmospheric and Space Technology Research Associates (ASTRA), based in Boulder, Colo. Kunches was a former lead forecaster and operations chief at NOAA’s Space Weather Prediction Center.


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    Re: SOHO LASCO C2 Latest Image

    Post  Carol on Wed May 06, 2015 10:30 am

    X-FLARE: The sun is no longer quiet. Emerging sunspot AR2339 unleashed an intense X2-class solar flare on May 5th at 22:11 UT. NASA’s Solar Dynamics Observatory captured the extreme ultraviolet flash: A pulse of UV radiation and X-rays from the flare caused a strong radio blackout over the Pacific side of Earth. This map shows the extent of the blackout, which affected frequencies below 20 MHz. Mariners, aviators, and ham radio operators are the type of people who might have noticed the disturbance. The explosion also hurled a CME into space traveling faster than 1100 km/s (2.5 million mph), the expanding cloud does not appear to be heading for Earth. –Space Weather


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    Re: SOHO LASCO C2 Latest Image

    Post  Carol on Fri May 15, 2015 4:57 pm

    GLANCING BLOW ON MAY 17: NOAA forecasters estimate a 45% chance of polar geomagnetic storms on May 17th when a CME is expected to deliver a glancing blow to Earth's magnetic field. The storm cloud was hurled in our direction by a magnetic filament, which erupted away from the sun on May 13th.


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    Re: SOHO LASCO C2 Latest Image

    Post  Carol on Mon Jun 22, 2015 10:15 pm


    SEVERE GEOMAGNETIC STORM IN PROGRESS: A severe G4-class geomagnetic storm is in progress on June 22nd. This follows a series of rapid-fire CME strikes to Earth's magnetic field during the past 24 hours. Magnetic fields in the wake of the latest CME are strongly coupled to Earth's own magnetic field. This is a condition that could sustain the geomagnetic storm for many hours to come. High- and mid-latitude sky watchers should be alert for auroras tonight, especially during the hours around local midnight. Aurora alerts: text, voice

    EARTH-DIRECTED SOLAR FLARE, RADIO BLACKOUT: Sunspot AR2371 has erupted again, producing a strong M6.5 class solar flare. NASA's Solar Dynamics Observatory captured the flare's extreme ultraviolet flash on June 22nd at 18:23 UT: X-ray and UV radiation from the flare ionized the upper layers of Earth's atmosphere, producing a moderately-strong blackout of shortwave and low-frequency radio signals over North America. The North American blackout is subsiding now. An even deeper radio blackout is still underway around both of Earth's poles. This is due to solar protons and electrons being funneled into the polar regions by Earth's magnetic field. A blackout map from NOAA shows the geographical distribution of the radio disturbances. http://www.spaceweather.com


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    Re: SOHO LASCO C2 Latest Image

    Post  Carol on Tue Jun 23, 2015 9:59 am

    Radiation Storm and Strong CME Alert
    http://americankabuki.blogspot.com/2015/06/radiation-storm-and-strong-cme-alert.html?utm_source=feedburner&utm_medium=email&utm_campaign=Feed%3A+AmericanKabuki+%28American+Kabuki%29

    Severe Geomagnetic Storms: http://www.swpc.noaa.gov/



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    Re: SOHO LASCO C2 Latest Image

    Post  Carol on Wed Jun 24, 2015 11:35 am

    GEOMAGNETIC STORM WARNING: NOAA forecasters estimate a 80% chance of polar geomagnetic storms on June 24th when another CME is expected to hit Earth's magnetic field. The intensity of the storm is hard to predict. It could range from mild to severe.

    Jason Brownlee sends this picture from Bend, Oregon: "I photographed the auroras from the edge of Soda Creek in the Cascade Mountains," says Brownlee.

    The lights descended even farther south than Oregon. Sky watchers saw auroras in the states of California, New Mexico, Colorado, Arizona, Texas, Georgia, Virginia and Arkansas--just to name a few.



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    Re: SOHO LASCO C2 Latest Image

    Post  Carol on Thu Jun 25, 2015 9:15 am

    GEOMAGNETIC STORM: As expected, a CME hit Eath's magnetic field on June 24th. At first the impact had little effect, but now a G2-class geomagnetic storm is in progress as Earth passes hrough the CME's wake. The intensity of the storm is hard to predict. High latitude sky watchers should be alert for auroras.


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    Re: SOHO LASCO C2 Latest Image

    Post  Carol on Fri Jun 26, 2015 4:18 pm


    CHANCE OF FLARES: Active sunspot AR2371 is decaying, but it still poses a threat for geoeffective explosions. The sunspot's unstable 'beta-gamma' magnetic field has erupted at least once a day for the past week. NOAA forecasters estimate a 60% chance of M-class flares and a 20% chance of X-flares on June 26th.

    ANOTHER CME IS ON THE WAY: Since June 21st, four CMEs have hit Earth's magnetic field. A fifth is on the way. Sunspot AR2371 erupted again during the early hours of June 25th, producing an M7.9-class solar flare and a lopsided CME. The Solar and Heliospheric Observatory photograhed the storm cloud, which raced away from the sun faster than 2000 km/s (4.5 million mph):


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    Re: SOHO LASCO C2 Latest Image

    Post  Carol on Mon Aug 03, 2015 9:35 am


    The CME is not heading for Earth. It is billowing away from the sun's farside, well off the sun-Earth line. What's next? Because the blast site is hidden behind the sun's limb, we cannot yet inspect it and assess its potential for future eruptions. However, it should rotate into view in the days ahead, possibly bringing an end to two weeks of quiet.

    SLIGHT CHANCE OF MAGNETIC STORMS: For the 4th day in a row, a stream of high-speed solar wind is blowing around Earth. The stream's steady pressure, however, is doing little to upset the stability of our planet's magnetic field. NOAA forecasters estimate a modest 25% chance of geomagnetic storms on August 3rd. Aurora alerts: text or voice.

    FARSIDE SOLAR ACTIVITY: Solar activity has been very low for more than two weeks. A change could be in the offing. During the early hours of August 3rd, a new active region on the farside of the sun announced itself with a bright CME. The Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO) recorded the eruption:

    Solar wind
    speed: 510.5 km/sec
    density: 1.3 protons/cm3


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    Re: SOHO LASCO C2 Latest Image

    Post  Carol on Thu Oct 01, 2015 2:43 pm

    NOAA-ROTATING INTERACTION REGION: NOAA forecasters estimate a 40% chance of polar geomagnetic storms on Oct. 2nd when a co-rotating interaction region (CIR) is expected to hit Earth's magnetic field. CIRs are transition zones between fast- and slow-moving solar wind streams. Solar wind plasma piles up in these regions, producing shock waves that do a good job of sparking auroras.

    SPECTACULAR ERUPTION: Yesterday, Sept. 30th, a massive plume of dark plasma rose up from the sun's western limb and erupted. NASA's Solar Dynamics Observatory recorded the blast:


    False colors in the movie correspond to different wavelengths of extreme ultraviolet (EUV) radiation. Greens and yellows denote hot gas. The erupting plasma looks dark red because it was cooler and denser than its surroundings.

    Fragments of the plume flew away from the sun, forming the core of a bright coronal mass ejection (CME): movie. There is a chance the CME will deliver a glancing blow to Earth's magnetic field on Oct. 3rd. If so, the impact will probably cause G1-class geomagnetic storms. Aurora alerts: text or voice

    COSMIC RAYS DURING THE LUNAR ECLIPSE: On the evening of Sept. 27th, Spaceweather.com and the students of Earth to Sky Calculus conducted a routine flight of their cosmic ray payload to the stratosphere. Routine, that is, except for one thing: the balloon flew at night during a lunar eclipse. One of the goals of the flight was to compare radiation levels at night to those recorded during the day. Here are the data they recorded: http://www.spaceweather.com


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    Re: SOHO LASCO C2 Latest Image

    Post  Carol on Tue Oct 13, 2015 2:05 pm

    INCREASING CHANCE OF FLARES: A new sunspot is emerging over the sun's eastern limb, and it poses a threat for M-class solar flares. For days this unnumbered active region has been throwing material up and over the limb as a herald of its approach: movie. Check back for updated flare probabilities as the sunspot rotates into view. Aurora alerts: text or voice

    ENORMOUS CORONAL HOLE: A gigantic hole in the sun's atmosphere has opened up and a broad stream of solar wind is flowing out of it. This is called a "coronal hole." It is the deep blue-colored region in this extreme UV image from NASA's Solar Dynamics Observatory:

    Coronal holes are places in the sun's atmosphere where the magnetic field unfurls and allows solar wind to escape. In the image above, the sun's magnetic field is traced by white curving lines. Outside the coronal hole, those magnetic fields curve back on themselves, trapping solar wind inside their loops. Inside the coronal hole, no such trapping occurs. Solar wind plasma is free to fly away as indicted by the white arrows.

    For much of the next week, Earth's environment in space will be dominated by winds flowing from this broad hole. This should activate some beautiful Arctic auroras. NOAA forecasters estimate a 40% of polar geomagnetic storms today, increasing to 60% on Oct. 15th as Earth moves deeper into the solar wind stream.


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    Re: SOHO LASCO C2 Latest Image

    Post  Carol on Fri Oct 23, 2015 11:37 am


    THE SOLAR FLARE THAT WOULDN'T END: Typical solar flares are finished in a matter of minutes. On Oct. 22nd, a solar flare in the magnetic canopy of sunspot AR2434 lasted for more than 3 hours. NASA's Solar Dynamics Observatory recorded the eruption: The peak X-ray intensity of the flare was relatively low. On the Richter Scale of Solar Flares it registered only C4.5. What the flare lacked in amplitude, however, it made up for in longevity. The hours-long blast was powerful and produced a bright CME, shown here billowing away from the sun's southwestern limb:


    The CME is not heading directly for Earth. Nevertheless, it does have an Earth-directed component. NOAA forecast models suggest that the cloud will deliver a glancing blow to our planet's magnetic field on Oct. 25th. There is a 50% chance of G1-class geomagnetic storms when it arrives. Weekend auroras, anyone?


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    Re: SOHO LASCO C2 Latest Image

    Post  Carol on Thu Dec 17, 2015 1:54 pm


    SOLAR STORM TARGETS EARTH: A pair of CMEs billowed away from the sun on Dec. 16th, and at least one of them appears to be heading for Earth. Propelled in our direction by an erupting filament of magnetism (movie), the storm cloud could produce G1-class geomagnetic storms when it arrives on Dec. 19th. Stay tuned for refinements to the forecast when NOAA storm tracks become available later today. Aurora alerts: text or voice

    POLAR STRATOSPHERIC CLOUDS: This week, sky watchers are reporting an outbreak of polar stratospheric clouds (PSCs) around the Arctic Circle. Unlike normal grey-white clouds, which hug Earth's surface at altitudes of only 5 to 10 km, PSCs float through the stratosphere (25 km) and they are fantastically colorful. Truls Tiller photographed these over Tromsø, Norway, on Dec. 16th: "Here the sun is gone for now," says Tiller, "but this beautiful view makes the winter darkness nice to be in as well. The picture was taken at 10.30 am, in the middle of the 'day.'"

    Also known as "nacreous" or "mother of pearl" clouds, the icy structures form in the lower stratosphere when temperatures drop to around minus 85ºC. High-altitude sunlight shining through tiny ice particles ~10µm across produce the characteristic bright iridescent colors by diffraction and interference. Once thought to be mere curiosities, some PSCs are now known to be associated with the destruction of ozone.

    "Nacreous clouds far outshine and have much more vivid colours than ordinary iridescent clouds, which are very much poor relations and seen frequently all over the world," writes atmospheric optics expert Les Cowley. "Once seen they are never forgotten."


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    Re: SOHO LASCO C2 Latest Image

    Post  Carol on Sat Dec 19, 2015 10:04 am


    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=baj9oDUjLZ8&feature=em-subs_digest


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    Re: SOHO LASCO C2 Latest Image

    Post  Carol on Wed Dec 30, 2015 11:58 am


    In this file photo, the Aurora Borealis illuminate the night sky, Nov. 12, 2015, near the town of Kirkenes in northern Norway.
    http://abcnews.go.com/Technology/powerful-solar-storm-hit-earth-years-eve/story?id=36010574
    Powerful Solar Storm to Hit Earth Before New Year's Eve

    A powerful solar storm set to slam Earth today will make for stunning views of the Northern Lights just before New Year's Eve. The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's Space Weather Prediction Center said the "strong" storm could allow the Northern Lights to dip as far south as Oregon and Illinois.

    WAITING FOR THE CME (UPDATED): A CME hurled toward Earth on Dec. 28th by an explosion in the magnetic canopy of sunspot AR2473 is still en route. Forecasters expect the storm cloud to arrive during the late hours of Dec. 30th. According to NOAA, there is a 90% chance of geomagnetic activity in the wake of the CME's impact. New Year's Eve auroras are in the offing. Aurora alerts: text or voice

    DECAYING SUNSPOT: Big sunspot AR2473, the source of the incoming CME, is no longer as potent as it was earlier this week. Philippe Tosi of Nîmes, France, photographed the sunspot's decaying core on Dec. 30th:Even in decay, the sunspot is an awesome thing, with dark condensations and filaments of magnetism that dwarf the largest continents of our planet. Terrifying appearances notwithstanding, the sunspot's overall magnetic field has decayed and no longer poses a threat for very strong flares. A stretch of quiet is in the offing.


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    Re: SOHO LASCO C2 Latest Image

    Post  Carol on Sun Jan 03, 2016 10:54 pm

    UN-DEAD SUNSPOT EXPLODES AGAIN: Sunspot AR2473, the source of the New Year's geomagnetic storm, appears to be in a state of advanced decay. It's not dead yet, though. During the early hours of Jan. 2nd it unleashed a strong M2-class solar flare. NASA's Solar Dynamics Observatory recorded the explosion:

    Now play the movie again and note the tornado of plasma that briefly rises up and falls back to the sun's surface. The twister was wider than our entire planet.

    This explosion hurled a coronal mass ejection (CME) into space: movie. Almost all of the storm cloud is heading away from Earth--almost all. NOAA analysts say the CME could deliver a glancing blow to Earth's magnetic field on Jan. 3rd with a chance of G2-class geomagnetic storms, post-impact.


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    Re: SOHO LASCO C2 Latest Image

    Post  Carol on Tue Jan 05, 2016 11:59 am


    CME MISSES EARTH... A coronal mass ejection (CME) expected to hit Earth on Jan. 3-4 did not. It appears to have missed, sailing wide of our planet. As a result, NOAA forecasters have downgraded the chance of a geomagnetic storm on Jan. 5th to 25%.

    ...BUT A STORM IS COMING ANYWAY: A broad hole has opened up in the sun's atmosphere, and it is spewing solar wind toward Earth. This is called a "coronal hole." It is the deep blue-colored region in this extreme UV image from NASA's Solar Dynamics Observatory:

    Coronal holes are places in the sun's atmosphere where the sun's magnetic field opens up and allows solar wind to escape. White arrows indicate solar wind plasma flowing into space.

    A stream of solar wind flowing from this coronal hole could reach Earth as early as Jan. 6th. According to NOAA forecasters, there is a 60% chance of G1-class geomagnetic storms when the solar wind arrives. High-latitude sky watchers should be alert for auroras on Jan. 6-7.


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    Re: SOHO LASCO C2 Latest Image

    Post  Carol on Fri Feb 05, 2016 9:41 am

    Small Asteroid to Pass Close to Earth March 5: A small asteroid named "2013 TX68" will fly by Earth on March 5th, and NASA says it could come as close as 17,000 km to our planet's surface. That would put it well inside the Clarke Belt of geosynchronous satellites. The space rock is about 30 meters wide, or 50% larger than the asteroid that broke up in the atmosphere over Chelyabinsk, Russia, three years ago. If an asteroid the size of 2013 TX68 were to enter Earth's atmosphere, it would likely produce an air burst with twice the energy of the Chelyabinsk event. Get the full story from NASA http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/news/news.php?feature=4888


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    Re: SOHO LASCO C2 Latest Image

    Post  Carol on Fri Feb 12, 2016 9:43 pm

    EARTH-DIRECTED CME: Sunspot AR2497 erupted on Feb. 11th (2103 UT), producing a C9-class solar flare and hurling a coronal mass ejection (CME) in space. Newly-arriving images from SOHO show that the CME does have an Earth-directed componen
    http://www.spaceweather.com


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    Re: SOHO LASCO C2 Latest Image

    Post  Carol on Fri Mar 04, 2016 1:56 pm

    CO-ROTATING INTERACTION REGION: NOAA forecasters estimate a 50% chance of polar geomagnetic storms on March 6th when a co-rotating interaction region (CIR) is expected to hit Earth's magnetic field. CIRs are transition zones between fast- and slow-moving solar wind streams. Solar wind plasma piles up in these regions, producing density gradients and shock waves that do a good job of sparking auroras. Aurora alerts: text or voice

    TOTAL ECLIPSE OF THE SUN: Next week, there's going to be a total eclipse of the sun. During the early hours of March 9th the new Moon will pass directly in front of the sun. The Moon's shadow will lance down toward Earth, making landfall only on the islands of Indonesia before it races out onto the waters of the Pacific Ocean. Graphic artist Larry Koehn of Shadow and Substance created this animated visibility map:

    www.spaceweather.com


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    Re: SOHO LASCO C2 Latest Image

    Post  bobhardee on Sat Mar 05, 2016 6:55 am

    3/5/2016

    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=k9Paf9uUtTI
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    Re: SOHO LASCO C2 Latest Image

    Post  Carol on Fri Apr 01, 2016 11:17 am

    Holes in the Sun Are Threatening to Throw Birds, GPS Off Course
    Brian K Sullivan
    WeatherSullivan
    March 31, 2016

       Solar wind arrives Saturday, touching off geomagnetic storms
       Minor events could also show off Northern Lights in New York

    Birds flying north for the spring and humans relying on global positioning satellites to navigate could get a little lost this weekend.

    Three coronal holes spread across the sun are pointing at the Earth. As a result, a minor geomagnetic storm alert has been issued for Saturday by the U.S. Space Weather Prediction Center in Boulder, Colorado, and the Space Weather Operations Centre of the U.K. Met Office in Exeter.

    “Early on Day 3 (2nd April), a high-speed stream from coronal hole 67 is expected to reach Earth,” said the Met Office.
    Source: NOAA

    Forecasters in the U.S. and U.K. predict this could confuse migrating birds and other animals, cause minor problems with satellites and make an aurora visible as far south as Maine and Michigan.

    The storms could rise to G2 level on a five-step scale, which would mean the Northern Lights might be seen in New York and some electrical transformers could be damaged.
    Magnetic Lines

    Viewed through X-ray telescopes, coronal holes can appear to be vast, dark, blank spaces in sun’s swirling atmosphere. They are the places where the sun’s magnetic lines don’t return to the surface.

    How does that work?

    Touch your fingertips together and they form an arc -- this is what the magnetic lines do on the sun. Now spread your fingers outward so they aren’t touching and are pointing away from you. This is what happens with the magnetic lines on the sun when a coronal hole opens.

    The solar wind, a stream of charged particles flowing away from the sun, bursts out with greater velocity from the coronal holes. When the holes point at the Earth, the planet is caught in even stronger winds and the chances of geomagnetic storms increase.

    http://www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2016-04-01/holes-in-the-sun-are-threatening-to-throw-birds-gps-off-course#media-2


    CHANCE OF STORMS: NOAA forecasters estimate a 45% chance of polar geomagnetic storms on April 1st when a CIR is expected to hit Earth's magnetic field. CIRs (co-rotating interaction regions) are transition zones between fast- and slow-moving solar wind streams. Density gradients and shock waves inside CIRs often do a good job sparking auroras. www.spaceweather.com


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    Re: SOHO LASCO C2 Latest Image

    Post  Carol on Fri Apr 29, 2016 9:27 pm

     
    On May 9th, the planet Mercury will pass in front of the sun, producing an inky-black spot on the solar disk. Catch it live on the Internet, courtesy of the Coca-Cola Space Science Center in Columbus, Georgia.  
    SOLAR SECTOR BOUNDARY CROSSING: On April 29th or 30th, Earth will cross a fold in the heliospheric current sheet--a vast wavy structure in interplanetary space separating regions of opposite magnetic polarity. This is called a "solar sector boundary crossing," and it could trigger geomagnetic activity around Earth's poles. NOAA forecasters estimate a 60% chance of G1-classgeomagnetic storms when the crossing occurs. 


    "SPACE LIGHTNING" OVER TEXAS: You know what comes out of the bottom of thunderstorms: lightning. On April 27th, Kevin Palivec of Hawley, Texas, saw something coming out of the top. "Storms moving across Texas produce more than just rain, wind, hail and tornadoes!" says Palivec. "They also produce a lot of space lightning called 'sprites.' This is a stacked image of all the sprites I caught over storms as they moved across Texas towards Dallas/Ft Worth--with one meteor thrown in!" 


    Because sprites are associated with thunderstorms, they tend to occur in late spring and summer. Palivec's photo shows that sprite season is now underway.


    Sprites are a true space weather phenomenon, inhabiting the upper reaches of Earth's atmosphere alongside noctilucent clouds, meteors, and some auroras. Some researchers believe they are linked to cosmic rays: subatomic particles from deep space striking the top of Earth's atmosphere produce secondary electrons that, in turn, could provide the spark that triggers sprites. 


    "Sprites develop in mid-air very high above Earth's surface, around 80 km altitude, growing in both directions, first down, then up," says explains lightning scientist Oscar van der Velde of the Technical University of Catalonia, Spain. "An individual sprite lasts only around 5-50 milliseconds but a sequence of them can be seen to 'dance' over storm fronts for a much longer period of time." 

    Although sprites have been seen for at least a century, most scientists did not believe they existed until after 1989 when sprites were photographed by cameras onboard the space shuttle. Now "sprite chasers" routinely photograph sprites from their own homes.  Give it a try!


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    With deepest respect ~ Aloha & Mahalo, Carol

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    Re: SOHO LASCO C2 Latest Image

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