Archangelic Queens of Heaven and the United States of the Solar System

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    orthodoxymoron

    Posts: 5088
    Join date: 2010-09-28

    Re: Archangelic Queens of Heaven and the United States of the Solar System

    Post  orthodoxymoron on Fri Nov 18, 2011 4:15 pm

    Thank-you lawlessline. This thread merely defines an area of research, which is really a road less travelled. I continue to think of myself as an incompetent and unstable hypocrite, who means well, but who doesn't have a clue. I'm a Rebel Without a Clue. But still, I think there are aspects of this thread which are quite profound, especially if you examine all of the links and books, and make a sincere effort to answer all of my questions. I've made my bed, and now I'm going to sleep in it. I'm so tired that I can't seem to think straight. Worrying about the state of the world is destroying me, and I hesitate to wake people up if our situation is as bad as it seems. I'm trying to change things from the top-down, with a critical mass of insiders and general-public knowing the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth. I do not relish anarchy, rioting, martial-law, and trench-warfare with the City-States and the Darkside of the Moon. I'm trying really hard to stop posting, and to just practice what I've been passively preaching. I'm trying to make this thread into a virtual home for myself, just to see if there is some validity to all of it, or not. This thread will be my virtual reality in the coming months and years, as I play the part of 'The Insider Who Never Was'. http://iconicphotos.wordpress.com/2010/01/28/the-man-who-never-was/ Reward Responsibility, and Compete Without Ceasing With Positive-Response Ability. And Now Abideth Responsibility, Response-Ability, and Love. What Would the King and Queen of the United States of the Solar System and the Anglo-Catholic Church Say? Namaste and Godspeed? This is "our" (at least on the soul-level) planet. Humanity might be a Fluke of a Reptilian Universe, but we really do have a right to be here, regardless of how rebellious, unintelligent, and irresponsible we might be. Hope springs eternal, but the Galactic PTB probably have a plan. My body is human, and what I was before I was human would only frighten you. You Should Let Me Go. You should let all (or most) of us go. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=uR46QjXjLH0 On the other hand, I continue to expose myself to material which causes me to become overwhelmed with unyielding despair. I wonder if the human race is an idealistic experiment gone bad, in the context of a regressive universe? Did the attempted solution turn out to be worse than the original problem? I love the theory and potentiality of humanity, but when one takes a long, hard look at history, the reality is much worse than unbearable. Even Jesus said, "I have many things to say unto you, but you cannot bear them". What did Jesus know, and when did he know it? I'm a combination of incurable optimism and unyielding despair, in the form of positive-response ability, wherein one thinks positively and negatively, and then formulates positive solutions. This seems to be a fairly secure foundation, even though it is often somewhat painful. But pain is simply the cost of doing business in the universe. The following documentary is somewhat painful to watch. http://www.hulu.com/watch/189157/secrets-of-war-nazi-gold

    Consider the following:

    1. Angels and Archangels.
    2. Incarnation and Reincarnation.
    3. Perception and Deception.
    4. Reptilians and Humans.
    5. Original Sin and Unpardonable Sin.
    6. Atonement and Responsibility.
    7. Revelation and Redaction.
    8. The Law of God.
    9. Transgression and Judgment.
    10. Obedience and Rebellion.
    11. God created by god.
    12. Theological Milestones and Historical Necessities.
    13. Absolute Truth and Situation Ethics.

    I am simply modeling the concept of the Repeated Reincarnation of Osiris, Isis, Horus, and Set - in the context of a Sirius-Egyptian-Roman Empire - going back thousands, or even millions, of years. I continue to study 'Jesus: Last of the Pharaohs' by Ralph Ellis, 'The Historical Jesus and the Mythical Christ' by Gerald Massey, and 'The Quest of the Historical Jesus' by Albert Schweitzer -- yet I prefer the Christology and Soteriology found in 'The Desire of Ages' by Ellen G. White. But God knows the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth. The rest of us are merely guessing. Serqet and Tehuti are important. What would Ra say? What would Loki do? I can't stop thinking about Lord Rothschild, Anna (in 'V'), Pope Pius XII, and Adolph Hitler - meeting on an Asteroid-Queenship in geosynchronous orbit - in 1939!! Osiris, Isis, Horus, and Set?? Please don't stone or crucify me. I'm leaving now. In the coming months and years, I will be searching for answers and solutions, which might help to create a perfected humanity, living in a perfected solar system. I've been trying to think of planets, moons, and asteroids as very possibly being spaceships, which might have huge unconventional propulsion devices, allowing them to be moved wherever desired. I continue to desire the refinement and reformation of this solar system, which might involve some sort of solar system exorcism, but I'd prefer that this sort of thing be orderly and non-violent. I'd also prefer that the planets, moons, and even asteroids, remain within this solar system, especially if they have been outfitted and improved with tax-money, drug-money, stolen-money, blood-money, and slave-labor. I'm frankly afraid of the 'regressives' - but I'm also afraid of us. Sometimes I'm not sure who might be worse! We might prevent a final jihad, and save the human race, only to descend from purgatory into hell, because we are too stupid to get along with each other. Solar System Without End. Please study the last couple of dozen posts very carefully. They summarize and refine a lot of the earlier posts. If I stop posting, don't assume that I've given-up the good fight of faith in responsible-freedom. I have not yet begun to fight (in the conventional sense), and I'd actually prefer to simply win without fighting. What would Sun Tzu say? Namaste and Godspeed? http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bvjROPfv0X4&feature=relmfu


    I continue to be attracted yet troubled by the liturgical church. Should we strive to be liturgically conservative and theologically liberal? Should we phrase theological liberalism in the most conservative language and practice possible? Would the incorporation of the U.S. Constitution and Bill of Rights into a liturgical church be a theological milestone or the beginning of the end? Here is something you might find interesting. I am somewhat interested in the tug of war between the Conservative Anglicans and Liberal Episcopalians in the United States. I am also interested in the contrast of Pre Vatican II with Post Vatican II Roman Catholicism. You New Agers and Evangelical Protestants might not see the need to agonize over this sort of thing, but I am fearful that we might be in the process of throwing out the baby with the bathwater as we consider all aspects of the current infowar. I am currently focusing upon 1. The 1928 'Book of Common Prayer'. 2. The Life and Teachings of Jesus, in the context of 'The Desire of Ages' by Ellen G. White. 3. The U.S. Constitution and Bill of Rights, in the context of 'The Federalist Papers'. 4. Sacred Classical Music, and especially the music of J.S. Bach. But obviously, if you study this thread, you will find that I am an extremely dangerous heretic of the most pestilential order, and my reincarnational provinence might complicate matters immeasurably. But doesn't this make life interesting??

    The Affirmation of St. Louis http://sbanglican.org/whoweare/apck/affirmation/

    In 1977 an international congress of nearly 2,000 Anglican bishops, clergy and lay people met in St. Louis, Missouri, united in opposition to the theological liberalisation that was taking place in the Episcopal Church. Many Anglicans saw that the mainline church was heading in a direction that was not biblical, and which ultimately “departed from Christ’s One, Holy, Catholic and Apostolic Church.” Over the years it has become clear that separating from the mainline Episcopal church in order to continue orthodox Anglicanism in America was the right choice. With the 2003 consecration of practicing homosexual Gene Robinson as bishop, many Episcopalians are only now realizing what the signers of the Affirmation of St. Louis saw in the late seventies.

    Text of the Affirmation of St. Louis

    The Continuation of Anglicanism

    We affirm that the Church of our fathers, sustained by the most Holy Trinity, lives yet, and that we, being moved by the Holy Spirit to walk only in that way, are determined to continue in the Catholic Faith, Apostolic Order, Orthodox Worship and Evangelical Witness of the traditional Anglican Church, doing all things necessary for the continuance of the same. We are upheld and strengthened in this determination by the knowledge that many provinces and dioceses of the Anglican Communion have continued steadfast in the same Faith, Order, Worship and Witness, and that they continue to confine ordination to the priesthood and the episcopate to males. We rejoice in these facts and we affirm our solidarity with these provinces and dioceses.

    The Dissolution of Anglican and Episcopal Church Structure

    We affirm that the Anglican Church of Canada and the Protestant Episcopal Church in the United States of America, by their unlawful attempts to alter Faith, Order and Morality (especially in their General Synod of 1975 and General Convention of 1976),have departed from Christ’s One, Holy, Catholic and Apostolic Church.

    The Need to Continue Order in the Church

    We affirm that all former ecclesiastical governments, being fundamentally impaired by the schismatic acts of lawless Councils, are of no effect among us, and that we must now reorder such godly discipline as we strengthen us in the continuation of our common life and witness.

    The Invalidity of Schismatic Authority

    We affirm that the claim of any such schismatic person or body to act against any Church member, clerical or lay, for his witness to the whole Faith is with no authority of Christ’s true Church, and any such inhibition, deposition or discipline is without effect and is absolutely null and void.

    The Need for Principles and a Constitution

    We affirm that fundamental principles (doctrinal, moral, and constitutional) are necessary for the present, and that a Constitution (redressing the defects and abuses of our former governments) should be adopted, whereby the Church may be soundly continued.

    The Continuation of Communion with Canterbury

    We affirm our continued relations of communion with the See of Canterbury and all faithful parts of the Anglican Communion.

    WHEREFORE, with a firm trust in Divine Providence, and before Almighty God and all the company of heaven, we solemnly affirm, covenant and declare that we, lawful and faithful members of the Anglican and Episcopal Churches, shall now and hereafter continue and be the unified continuing Anglican Church in North America, in true and valid succession thereto.

    FUNDAMENTAL PRINCIPLES

    In order to carry out these declarations, we set forth these fundamental Principles for our continued life and witness.

    PREFACE:

    In the firm conviction that “we shall be saved through the grace of the Lord Jesus Christ,”and that “there is no other name under heaven given among men by which we must be saved,” and acknowledging our duty to proclaim Christ’s saving Truth to all peoples,nations and tongues, we declare our intention to hold fast the One, Holy, Catholic and Apostolic Faith of God. We acknowledge that rule of faith laid down by St. Vincent of Lerins: “Let us hold that which has been believed everywhere, always and by all, for that is truly and properly Catholic.”

    I. PRINCIPLES OF DOCTRINE

    1. The Nature of the Church

    We gather as people called by God to be faithful and obedient to Him. As the Royal Priestly People of God, the Church is called to be, in fact, the manifestation of Christ in and to the world. True religion is revealed to man by God. We cannot decide what is truth, but rather (in obedience) ought to receive, accept, cherish, defend and teach what God has given us. The Church is created by God, and is beyond the ultimate control of man. The Church is the Body of Christ at work in the world. She is the society of the baptised called out from the world: In it, but not of it. As Christ’s faithful Bride, she is different from the world and must not be influenced by it.

    2. The Essentials of Truth and Order

    We repudiate all deviation of departure from the Faith, in whole or in part, and bear witness to these essential principles of evangelical Truth and apostolic Order:

    Holy Scriptures

    The Holy Scriptures of the Old and New Testaments and the authentic record of God’s revelation of Himself, His saving activity, and moral demands — a revelation valid for all men and all time.

    The Creeds

    The Nicene Creed as the authoritative summary of the chief articles of the Christian Faith,together with the “Apostles’ Creed, and that known as the Creed of St. Athanasius to be”thoroughly received and believed” in the sense they have had always in the Catholic Church.

    Tradition

    The received Tradition of the Church and its teachings as set forth by “the ancient catholic bishops and doctors,” and especially as defined by the Seven Ecumenical Councils of the undivided Church, to the exclusion of all errors, ancient and modern.

    Sacraments

    The Sacraments of Baptism, Confirmation, the Holy Eucharist, Holy Matrimony,Holy Orders, Penance and Unction of the Sick, as objective and effective signs of the continued presence and saving activity of Christ our Lord among His people and as His covenanted means for conveying His grace. In particular, we affirm the necessity of Baptism and the Holy Eucharist (where they may be had) — Baptism as incorporating us into Christ (with its completion in Confirmation as the “seal of the Holy Spirit”), and the Eucharist as the sacrifice which unites us to the all-sufficient Sacrifice of Christ on the Cross and the Sacrament in which He feeds us with His Body and Blood.

    Holy Orders

    The Holy Orders of bishops, priests and deacons as the perpetuation of Christ’s gift of apostolic ministry to His Church, asserting the necessity of a bishop of apostolic succession (or priest ordained by such) as the celebrant of the Eucharist — these Orders consisting exclusively of men in accordance with Christ’s Will and institution (as evidenced by the Scriptures), and the universal practice of the Catholic Church.

    Deaconesses

    The ancient office and ministry of Deaconesses as a lay vocation for women, affirming the need for proper encouragement of that office.

    Duty of Bishops

    Bishops as Apostles, Prophets, Evangelists, Shepherds and Teachers, as well as their duty(together with other clergy and the laity) to guard and defend the purity and integrity of the Church’s Faith and Moral Teaching.

    The Use of Other Formulae

    In affirming these principles, we recognize that all Anglican statements of faith and liturgical formulae must be interpreted in accordance with them.

    Incompetence of Church Bodies to Alter Truth

    We disclaim any right or competence to suppress, alter or amend any of the ancient Ecumenical Creeds and definitions of Faith, to set aside or depart from Holy Scripture, or to alter or deviate from the essential pre-requisites of any Sacrament.

    Unity with Other Believers

    We declare our firm intention to seek and achieve full sacramental communion and visible unity with other Christians who “worship the Trinity in Unity, and Unity in Trinity,” and who hold the Catholic and Apostolic Faith in accordance with the foregoing principles.

    II. PRINCIPLES OF MORALITY

    The conscience, as the inherent knowledge of right and wrong, cannot stand alone as a sovereign arbiter of morals. Every Christian is obligated to form his conscience by the Divine Moral Law and the Mind of Christ as revealed in Holy Scriptures, and by the teaching and Tradition of the Church. We hold that when the Christian conscience is thus properly informed and ruled, it must affirm the following moral principles:

    Individual Responsibility

    All people, individually and collectively, are responsible to their Creator for their acts, motives,thoughts and words, since “we must all appear before the judgement seat of Christ . . .”

    Sanctity of Human Life

    Every human being, from the time of his conception, is a creature and child of God, made in His image and likeness, an infinitely precious soul; and that the unjustifiable or inexcusable taking of life is always sinful.

    Man’s Duty to God

    All people are bound by the dictates of the Natural Law and by the revealed Will of God, insofar as they can discern them.

    Family Life

    The God-given sacramental bond in marriage between one man and one woman is God’s loving provision for procreation and family life, and sexual activity is to be practised only within the bonds of Holy Matrimony.

    Man as Sinner

    We recognize that man, as inheritor of original sin, is “very far gone from original righteousness,”and as a rebel against God’s authority is liable to His righteous judgement.

    Man and God’s Grace

    We recognize, too, that God loves His children and particularly has shown it forth in the redemptive work of our Lord Jesus Christ, and that man cannot be saved by any effort of his own, but by the Grace of God, through repentance and acceptance of God’s forgiveness.

    Christian’s Duty to be Moral

    We believe, therefore, it is the duty of the Church and her members to bear witness to Christian Morality, to follow it in their lives, and to reject the false standards of the world.

    III. CONSTITUTIONAL PRINCIPLES

    In the constitutional revision which must be undertaken, we recommend, for the consideration of continuing Anglicans, the following:

    Retain the Best of Both Provinces

    That the traditional and tested features of the Canadian and American ecclesiastical systems be retained and used in the administration of the continuing Church.

    Selection of Bishops

    That a non-political means for selection of bishops be devised.

    Tripartite Synod

    That the Church be generally governed by a Holy Synod of three branches (episcopal, clerical and lay), under the presidency of the Primate of the Church.

    Scriptural Standards for the Ministry

    That the apostolic and scriptural standards for the sacred Ministry be used for all orders of Ministers.

    Concurrence of all Orders for Decisions

    That the Constitution acknowledge the necessity of the concurrence of all branches of the Synod for decisions in all matters, and that extraordinary majorities be required for the favorable consideration of all matters of importance.

    Re-establishment of Discipline

    That the Church re-establish an effective permanent system of ecclesiastical courts for the defence of the Faith and the maintenance of discipline over all her members.

    Constitutional Assembly to be Called

    That our bishops shall call a Constitutional Assembly of lay and clerical representatives of dioceses and parishes to convene at the earliest appropriate time to draft a Constitution and Canons by which we may be unified and governed, with special reference to this Affirmation, and with due consideration to ancient Custom and the General Canon Law, and to the former law of our provinces.

    Interim Action

    In the meantime, trusting in the everlasting strength of God to carry us through all our trials, we commend all questions for decision to the proper authorities in each case: Episcopal, diocesan,and parochial, encouraging all the faithful to support our witness as subscribers to this Affirmation, and inviting all so doing to share our fellowship and the work of the Church.

    IV. PRINCIPLES OF WORSHIP

    Prayer Book — The Standard of Worship

    In the continuing Anglican Church, the Book of Common Prayer is (and remains) one work in two editions: The Canadian Book of 1962 and the American Book of 1928. Each is fully and equally authoritative. No other standard for worship exists.

    Certain Variances Permitted

    For liturgical use, only the Book of Common Prayer and service books conforming to and incorporating it shall be used.

    V. PRINCIPLES OF ACTION

    Intercommunion with other Apostolic Churches

    The continuing Anglicans remain in full communion with the See of Canterbury and with all other faithful parts of the Anglican Communion, and should actively seek similar relations with all other Apostolic and Catholic Churches, provided that agreement in the essentials of Faith and Order first be reached.

    Non-Involvement with Non-Apostolic Groups

    We recognise that the World Council of Churches, and many national and other Councils adhering to the World Council, are non-Apostolic, humanist and secular in purpose and practice,and that under such circumstances, we cannot be members of any of them. We also recognise that the Consultation of Church Union (COCU) and all other such schemes, being non-Apostolic and non-Catholic in their present concept and form, are unacceptable to us, and that we cannot be associated with any of them.

    Need for Sound Theological Training

    Re-establishment of spiritual, orthodox and scholarly theological education under episcopal supervision is imperative, and should be encouraged and promoted by all in authority; and learned and godly bishops, other clergy and lay people should undertake and carry on that work without delay.

    Financial Affairs

    The right of congregations to control of their temporalities should be firmly and constitutionally recognised and protected.

    Administrative Matters

    Administration should, we believe, be limited to the most simple and necessary acts, so that emphasis may be centred on worship, pastoral care, spiritual and moral soundness, personal good works, and missionary outreach, in response to God’s love for us.

    The Church as Witness to Truth

    We recognise also that, as keepers of God’s will and truth for man, we can and ought to witness to that will and truth against all manifest evils, remembering that we are as servants in the world,but God’s servants first.

    Pensions and Insurance

    We recognise our immediate responsibility to provide for the establishment of sound pension and insurance programs for the protection of the stipendiary clergy and other Church Workers.

    Legal Defence

    We recognise the immediate need to coordinate legal resources, financial and professional, for the defence of congregations imperilled by their stand for the Faith, and commend this need most earnestly to the diocesan and parochial authorities.

    Continuation, Not Innovation

    In this gathering witness of Anglicans and Episcopalians, we continue to be what we are. We do nothing new. We form no new body, but continue as Anglicans and Episcopalians.

    NOW, THEREFORE, deeply aware of our duty to all who love and believe the Faith of our Fathers, of our duty to God, who alone shall judge what we do, we make this Affirmation. Before God, we claim our Anglican/Episcopal inheritance, and proclaim the same to the whole Church, through Jesus Christ our Lord, to whom, with the Father and the Holy Ghost, be all honor and glory, world without end. Amen.


    orthodoxymoron

    Posts: 5088
    Join date: 2010-09-28

    Re: Archangelic Queens of Heaven and the United States of the Solar System

    Post  orthodoxymoron on Tue Nov 22, 2011 12:17 pm

    Here is a Wiki entry which sheds light on the previous post. Wikipedia might not be scholarly enough for some, but I like the summaries, and I suspect that occasionally some forbidden information might be included which might be edited out of a book. But really, if no one reads this thread, what difference does it make??? The thought of Laughing with the Liberals and/or Kneeling Before the 'Holy Father' makes me VERY nervous. Might an Anglo-Catholic Church, in the context of a United States of the Solar System, be a Middle Way??? Take That Home to Rome. Here I Sit. shttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Book_of_Common_Prayer

    The Book of Common Prayer is the short title of a number of related prayer books used in the Anglican Communion, as well as by the Continuing Anglican, "Anglican realignment" and other Anglican churches. The original book, published in 1549 (Church of England 1957), in the reign of Edward VI, was a product of the English Reformation following the break with Rome. Prayer books, unlike books of prayers, contain the words of structured (or liturgical) services of worship. The work of 1549 was the first prayer book to include the complete forms of service for daily and Sunday worship in English. It contained Morning Prayer, Evening Prayer, the Litany, and Holy Communion and also the occasional services in full: the orders for Baptism, Confirmation, Marriage, 'prayers to be said with the sick' and a Funeral service. It also set out in full the "propers" (that is the parts of the service which varied week by week or, at times, daily throughout the Church's Year): the Collect and the Epistle and Gospel readings for the Sunday Communion Service. Old Testament and New Testament readings for daily prayer were specified in tabular format as were the Psalms; and canticles, mostly biblical, that were provided to be said or sung between the readings (Careless 2003, p. 26).

    The 1549 book was soon succeeded by a more reformed revision in 1552 under the same editorial hand, that of Thomas Cranmer, Archbishop of Canterbury. It was used only used for a few months since, after Edward's death in 1553, his half-sister Mary I restored Roman Catholic worship. She herself died in 1558, and in 1559 Elizabeth I reintroduced the 1552 book with a few modifications to make it acceptable to more traditionally minded worshipers, notably the inclusion of the words of administration from the 1549 Communion Service alongside those of 1552.

    In 1604 James I ordered some further changes, the most significant of these being the addition to the Catechism of a section on the Sacraments. Following the tumultuous events leading to and including the English Civil War, another major revision was published in 1662 (Church of England 1662). That edition has remained the official prayer book of the Church of England, although in the 21st century, an alternative book called Common Worship has largely displaced the Book of Common Prayer at the main Sunday worship service of most English parish churches.

    A Book of Common Prayer with local variations is used in churches inside and outside the Anglican Communion in over 50 different countries and in over 150 different languages (Careless 2003, p. 23). Again in many parts of the world, more contemporary books have replaced it in regular weekly worship.

    Traditional Lutheran, Methodist and Presbyterian prayer books have borrowed from the Book of Common Prayer, and the marriage and burial rites have found their way into those of other denominations and into the English language. Like the Authorized King James Bible and the works of Shakespeare, many words and phrases from the Book of Common Prayer have entered common parlance.

    The full name of the 1662 Book of Common Prayer is The Book of Common Prayer and Administration of the Sacraments and other Rites and Ceremonies of the Church according to the use of the Church of England together with the Psalter or Psalms of David pointed as they are to be sung or said in churches and the form and manner of making, ordaining, and consecrating of bishops, priests, and deacons.

    The forms of parish worship in the late medieval church in England, which followed the Latin Roman Rite, varied according to local practice. These were termed local "use". By far the most common found in Southern England was the Use of Sarum. The rite was not consolidated into a single book. Instead, the forms of service that were to be included in the Book of Common Prayer were drawn from the Missal (for the Mass), Breviary for the daily office, Manual (for the occasional services; Baptism, Marriage, Burial etc.), and Pontifical (for the services appropriate to a bishop—Confirmation, Ordination) (Harrison & Sansom 1982, p. 29). The work of producing English-language books for use in the liturgy was largely that of Thomas Cranmer, Archbishop of Canterbury at first under the reign of Henry VIII, only more radically under his son Edward VI. Cranmer was, in his early days, somewhat conservative, an admirer, if a critical one, of John Fisher. It may have been his visit to Germany in 1532 (where he secretly married) which began the change in his outlook. Then in 1538, as Henry began diplomatic negotiations with Lutheran princes, Cranmer came face-to-face with a Lutheran embassy (MacCulloch (a) 1996, p. 215). The Exhortation and Litany, the earliest English-language service book of the Church of England, was the first overt manifestation of his changing views. It was thus no mere translation from the Latin: its Protestant character is made clear by the drastic reduction of the place of saints, compressing what had been the major part into three petitions (Procter & Frere 1965, p. 31). Published in 1544, it borrowed greatly from Martin Luther's Litany and Myles Coverdale's New Testament and was the only service that might be considered to be "Protestant" to be finished within the lifetime of King Henry VIII.

    It was not until Henry's death in 1547 and the accession of Edward VI that revision could proceed faster. Cranmer finished his work on an English Communion rite in 1548, obeying an order of Convocation of the previous year that Communion was to be given to the people as both bread and wine. The ordinary Roman Rite of the Mass had made no provision for any congregation present to receive Communion. So, Cranmer composed in English an additional rite of congregational preparation and Communion (based on the form of the Sarum rite for Communion of the Sick), to be undertaken immediately following the Communion, in both kinds, of the priest.

    Further developed, and fully translated into English, this Communion service was included, one year later, in 1549, in a full prayer book, set out with a daily office, readings for Sundays and Holy Days, the Communion Service, Public Baptism, of Confirmation, of Matrimony, The Visitation of the Sick, At a Burial and the Ordinal (added in 1550) (Gibson 910). The Preface to this edition, which contained Cranmer's explanation as to why a new prayer book was necessary, began: "There was never any thing by the wit of man so well devised, or so sure established, which in continuance of time hath not been corrupted." Although the work is commonly attributed to Cranmer, its detailed origins are obscure (Procter & Frere 1965, p. 45) (MacCulloch (a) 1996, p. 414). A group of bishops and divines met first at Chertsey and then at Windsor in 1548, drawn from both conservatives and reformers, agreed only "the service of the church ought to be in the mother tongue"(Procter & Frere 1965, p. 47). Cranmer collected the material from many sources; even the opening of Preface (above) was borrowed (MacCulloch (a) 1996, p. 225). He borrowed much from German sources, particularly from work commissioned by Hermann von Wied, Archbishop of Cologne; and also from Osiander (to whom he was related by marriage) (MacCulloch (a) 1996, p. 414). The Church Order of Brandenberg and Nuremberg was partly the work of the latter. Many phrases are characteristic of the German reformer Martin Bucer, or of the Italian Peter Martyr, (who was staying with Cranmer at the time of the finalising of drafts), or of his chaplain, Thomas Becon. However, to Cranmer is 'credited the overall job of editorship and the overarching structure of the book' including the systematic amendment of his materials to remove any idea that human merit contributed to their salvation (MacCulloch (a) 1996, p. 417).

    The Communion service of 1549 maintained the format of distinct rites of Consecration and Communion, that had been introduced the previous year; but with the Latin rite of the Mass (chiefly following the familiar structure in the Use of Sarum), translated into English. By outwardly maintaining familiar forms, Cranmer hoped to establish the practice of weekly congregational Communion, and included exhortations to encourage this; and instructions that Communion should never be received by the priest alone. This represented a radical change from late medieval practice—whereby the primary focus of congregational worship was taken to be attendance at the consecration, and adoration of the elevated Consecrated Host. In late medieval England, congregations only regularly received Communion at Easter; and otherwise individual lay people might expect to receive Communion only when gravely ill, or in the form of a Nuptial Mass on being married.

    Cranmer's work of simplification and revision was also applied to the Daily Offices, which were to become Morning, and Evening Prayer; and which he hoped would also serve as a daily form of prayer to be used by the Laity, thus replacing both the late medieval lay observation of the Latin Hours of the Virgin, and its English equivalent, the Primer. This simplification was anticipated by the work of Cardinal Francis Quiñones, a Spanish Franciscan, in his abortive revision of the Roman Breviary published in 1537 (Procter & Frere 1965, p. 27). Cranmer took up Quiñones's principle that everything should be sacrificed to secure continuity in singing the Psalter and reading the Bible. His first draft, produced during Henry's reign, retained the traditional seven distinct Canonical hours of Office prayer; but in his second draft, while he retained the Latin, he consolidated these into two (Procter & Frere 1965, p. 34). The 1549 book then dispensed with the Latin, and with all non-biblical readings; and established a rigorously biblical cycle of readings for Morning and Evening Prayer (set according to the calendar year, rather than the ecclesiastical year) and a Psalter to be read consecutively throughout each month. He provided that the New Testament (other than the Book of Revelation) be read through three times in a year, while the Old Testament, including the Apocrypha would be read through once. Of the set canticles, only the Te Deum was retained of the non-biblical material.

    Introduced on Whitsunday 1549, after considerable debate and revision in Parliament—but there is no evidence that it was ever submitted to either Convocation—it was said to have pleased neither reformers nor their opponents, indeed the Catholic Bishop Gardiner could say of it was that it "was patient of a catholic interpretation". It was widely unpopular in the parishes, especially in places such as Devon and Cornwall (Duffy (b) 2003, p. 131). Particularly unpopular was the banning of processions and the sending out of commissioners to enforce the new requirements. There was widespread opposition to the introduction of regular congregational Communion, partly because the extra costs of bread and wine that would fall on the parish[dubious – discuss]; but mainly out of an intense resistance to undertaking in regular worship, a religious practice previously associated with marriage or illness.

    The book was, from the outset, intended only as a temporary expedient, as Bucer was assured having met Cranmer for the first time in April 1549: 'concessions...made both as a respect for antiquity and to the infirmity of the present age' as he wrote (MacCulloch (a) 1996, p. 411). It kept the appearance of the Mass but abandoned its theology. A. H. Couratin in a set of unpublished Oxford University lectures from 1958 described it as a "bogus Mass".[citation needed] Both Bucer and Peter Martyr wrote detailed proposals for modification; Bucer's Censura ran to 28 chapters which influenced Cranmer significantly though he did not follow them slavishly and the new book was duly produced in 1552, making "fully perfect" what was already implicit (Procter & Frere 1965, p. 71) (McCulloch 1996, p. 505). The policy of incremental reform was now unveiled: more Roman Catholic practices were now excised, as doctrines had in 1549 been subtly changed. Thus, in the Eucharist, gone were the words Mass and altar; the 'Lord have mercy' was interleaved into a recitation of the Ten Commandments and the Gloria was removed to the end of the service. The Eucharistic prayer was split in two so that Eucharistic bread and wine were shared immediately after the words of institution (This is my Body..This is my blood...in remembrance of me.); while its final element, the Prayer of Oblation, (with its reference to an offering of a 'Sacrifice of praise and thanksgiving'), was transferred, much changed, to a position after the priest and congregation had received Communion, and was made optional with an alternative prayer of thanksgiving provided. The Elevation of the Host had been forbidden in 1549; all manual acts were now omitted. The words at the administration of Communion which, in the prayer book of 1549 described the Eucharistic species as 'The body of our Lorde Jesus Christe...', 'The blood of our Lorde Jesus Christe...' were replaced with the words 'Take, eat, in remembrance that Christ died for thee..' etc. The Peace, at which in the early Church the congregation had exchanged a greeting, was removed altogether. Vestments such as the stole, chasuble and cope were no longer to be worn, but only a surplice. It was the final stage of the reformers' work of removing all elements of sacrificial offering from the Latin Mass; so that it should cease to be seen as a ritual at which the priest, on behalf of the faithful offered Christ's body and blood to God; and might rather be seen as a ritual whereby Christ shared his body and blood, according to a different sacramental theology, with the faithful.

    Cranmer recognized that the 1549 rite of Communion had been capable of conservative misinterpretation and misuse, in that the consecration rite might still be undertaken even when no congregational Communion followed. Consequently, in 1552 he thoroughly integrated Consecration and Communion into a single rite, with congregational preparation preceding the words of institution—such that it would not be possible to mimic the Mass with the priest communicating alone. He appears nevertheless, to have been resigned to being unable for the present to establish in parishes the weekly practice of receiving Communion; so he restructured the service so as to allow ante-Communion as a distinct rite of worship—following the Communion rite through the readings and offertory, as far as the intercessory "Prayer for the Church Militant".

    Diarmaid MacCulloch suggests that Cranmer's own Eucharistic theology in these years approximated most closely to that of Heinrich Bullinger; but that he intended the Prayer Book to be acceptable to the widest range of Reformed Eucharistic belief, including the high sacramental theology of Bucer and John Calvin (MacCulloch (a) 1996, p. 615). At the same time, however, Cranmer intended that constituent parts of the rites gathered into the Prayer Book should still, so far as possible, be recognizably derived from traditional forms and elements.

    In the Baptism service the signing with the cross was moved until after the baptism and the exorcism, the anointing, the putting on of the chrysom robe and the triple immersion were omitted. Most drastic of all was the removal of the Burial service from church: it was to take place at the graveside[citation needed]. In 1549, there had been provision for a Requiem (not so called) and prayers of commendation and committal, the first addressed to the deceased. All that remained was a single reference to the deceased, giving thanks for their delivery from 'the myseryes of this sinneful world'. This new Order for the Burial of the Dead was a drastically stripped-down memorial service designed to undermine definitively the whole complex of traditional beliefs about Purgatory and intercessory prayer (Procter & Frere 1965, p. 81) (Duffy (a) 1992, pp. 472–5).

    In other respects, however, both the Baptism and Burial services imply a theology of salvation that accords notably less with Reformed teachings than do the counterpart passages in the Articles of Religion. In the Burial service, the possibility that a deceased person who has died in the faith may nevertheless not be counted amongst God's elect, is not entertained. In the Baptism service the priest explicitly pronounces the baptised infant as being now regenerate. In both cases, conformity with strict Reformed Protestant principles would have resulted in a conditional formulation. The continued inconsistency between the Articles of Religion and the Prayer Book remained a point of contention for Puritans; and would in the 19th century come close to tearing the Church of England apart, through the course of the Gorham judgement.

    The Orders of Morning and Evening Prayer were extended by the inclusion of a penitential section at the begining including a corporate confession of sin and a general absolution, although the text was printed only in Morning Prayer with rubrical directions to use it in the evening as well. The general pattern of Bible reading in 1549 was retained (as it was in 1559) except that distinct Old and New Testament readings were now specified for Morning and Evening Prayer on certain feast days. Following the publication of the 1552 Prayer Book, a revised English Primer was published in 1553; adapting the Offices and Morning and Evening Prayer, and other prayers, for lay domestic piety (MacCulloch (a) 1996, p. 510).

    Before the book was in general use, however, Edward VI died. In 1553, Mary, upon her succession to the throne, restored the old religion. The Mass was re-established, altars, roods and statues were re-instated; an attempt was made to restore the Church to its Roman affiliation. Cranmer was punished for his work in the English Reformation by being burned at the stake on 21 March 1556. Nevertheless, the 1552 book was to survive. After Mary's death in 1558, it became the primary source for the Elizabethan Book of Common Prayer, with subtle if significant changes only.

    Hundreds of Protestants fled into exile—establishing an English church in Frankfurt am Main. A bitter, and very public, dispute ensued between those, like Edmund Grindal and Richard Cox, who wished to preserve in exile the exact form of worship of the 1552 Prayer Book; and those, like John Knox the pastor of the congregation, who regarded that book as still partially tainted with compromise. Eventually in 1555 the civil authorities expelled Knox and his supporters to Geneva, where they adopted a new Prayer Book The Form of Prayers, that derived chiefly from Calvin's French La Forme des Prières (Maxwell 1965, p. 5). Consequently, when the accession of Elizabeth I re-asserted the dominance of Protestantism in England, there remained a significant body of Reformed believers who were nevertheless hostile to the Book of Common Prayer. John Knox took The Form of Prayers with him to Scotland, where it formed the basis of the Scots Book of Common Order.

    Thus, under Elizabeth, a more permanent enforcement of the Reformed religion was undertaken, and the 1552 book was republished in 1559, scarcely altered (Procter & Frere 1965, p. 94).

    The alterations, though minor, were however to cast a long shadow. One, the "Ornaments Rubric", related to what was worn. Instead of the banning of all vestments save the rochet (for bishops) and the surplice for parish clergy, it permitted 'such ornaments...as were in use...in the second year of K. Edward VI'. This allowed substantial leeway for more traditionalist clergy to retain some of the vestments which they felt were appropriate to liturgical celebration (at least until the Queen gave further instructions under the Act of Uniformity of 1559). It was to be the basis of claims in the 19th Century that vestments such as chasubles, albs, and stoles were legal. At the Communion, the words from the 1549 book 'the Body of our Lord Jesus Christ' etc. was combined with the words of Edward's second book, 'Take eat in remembrance.' etc. The instruction to the congregation to kneel at the Communion was retained; but the accompanying Black Rubric denying any "real and essential presence" of Christ's flesh and blood, was removed (MacCulloch (a) 1996, p. 527). The conservative nature of these changes underlines the fact that Protestantism was by no means universally popular – a fact that the queen herself recognized: her revived Act of Supremacy, giving her the ambiguous title of Supreme Governor passed without difficulty, but the Act of Uniformity 1559 giving statutory force to the Prayer Book, passed through Parliament by only three votes (MacCulloch (a) 1996, p. 101). It made constitutional history in being imposed by the laity alone, as all the bishops, except those imprisoned by the Queen and unable to attend, voted against it (Guy 1988, p. 262). Convocation had made its position clear by affirming the traditional doctrine of the Eucharist, the authority of the Pope, and the reservation by divine law to ecclesiastics 'of handling and defining concerning the things belonging to faith, sacraments, and discipline ecclesiastical' (Clarke 1954, p. 182).

    After the several innovations and reversals, the new forms of worship took time to settle in. Among Cranmer's innovations, retained in the new book was the requirement of weekly communion. In practice, as before the Reformation, many received communion rarely, as little as once a year in some cases; George Herbert estimated it as no more than six times (Marsh 1998, p. 50). However practice was variable: very high attendance at festivals was in most places the order of the day and in some places regular communion was very popular, in other places they stayed away or sent "a servant to be the liturgical representative of their household." (Maltby 1998, p. 123) (Furlong 2000, p. 43). Few parish clergy were initially licensed to preach by the bishops; in the absence of a licensed preacher, Sunday services were required to be accompanied by reading one of the homilies written by Cranmer (Chapman 2006, p. 29). George Herbert was however, not alone in his enthusiasm for preaching which he regarded as one of the prime functions of a parish priest (Maltby 1998, p. 67). Music was much simplified; and a radical distinction developed between, on the one hand, parish worship where only the metrical psalms of Sternhold and Hopkins might be sung; and on the other hand, worship in churches with organs and surviving choral foundations, where the music of John Marbeck and others was developed into a rich choral tradition (Procter & Frere 1965, p. 125) (Marsh 1998, p. 31). The whole act of parish worship might take well over two hours; and accordingly, churches were equipped with pews in which households could sit together (whereas in the medieval church, men and women had worshipped separately). Diarmaid MacCulloch describes the new act of worship as, "a morning marathon of prayer, scripture reading, and praise, consisting of mattins, litany, and ante-communion, preferably as the matrix for a sermon to proclaim the message of scripture anew week by week." (Furlong 2000, p. 43).

    Many ordinary churchgoers—that is, those who could afford a copy, as it was expensive—would own a copy of the prayer book. Judith Maltby cites a story of parishioners at Flixton in Suffolk who brought their own prayer books to church in order to shame their Vicar into conforming with it: they eventually ousted him (Maltby 1998, p. 44). Between 1549 and 1642, roughly 290 editions of the prayer book were produced (Maltby 1998, p. 24). Before the end of the Civil War and the introduction of the 1662 prayer book, something like a half a million prayer books are estimated to have been in circulation (Maltby 1998, p. 24).

    On Elizabeth's death in 1603, the 1559 book, substantially that of 1552 which had been regarded as offensive by the likes of Bishop Stephen Gardiner as being a break with the tradition of the Western church, had come to be regarded in some quarters as unduly Catholic. On his accession and following the so-called Millenary Petition, James I called the Hampton Court Conference in 1604—the same meeting of bishops and Puritan divines that initiated the Authorized version of the Bible. This was in effect a series of two conferences: (i) between James and the Bishops; (ii) between James and the Puritans on the following day. The Puritans raised four areas of concern: purity of doctrine; the means of maintaining it; church government; and the Book of Common Prayer. Here Confirmation, the cross in baptism, private baptism, the use of the surplice, kneeling at the communion, reading the Apocrypha; and subscription to the BCP and Articles were all touched on. On the third day, after James had received a report back from the bishops and made final modifications, he announced his decisions to the Puritans and Bishops.(Procter & Frere 1965, pp. 138-140) The business of making the changes was then entrusted to a small committee of bishops and the Privy Council and, apart from tidying up details, this committee introduced into Morning and Evening Prayer a prayer for the Royal Family; added several thanksgivings to the Occasional Prayers at the end of the Litany; altered the rubrics of Private Baptism limiting it to the minister of the parish, or some other lawful minister, but still allowing it in private houses (the Puritans had wanted it only in the church); and added to the Catechism the section on the sacraments. The changes were put into effect by means of an explanation issued by James in the exercise of his prerrogative under the terms of the 1559 Act of Uniformity and Act of Supremacy. (Procter & Frere 1965, pp. 140-143)

    With the defeat of Charles I (1625–1649) in the Civil War the Puritan pressure, exercised through a much-changed Parliament, had increased. Puritan-inspired petitions for the removal of the prayer book and episcopacy 'root and branch' resulted in local disquiet in many places and eventually the production of locally organized counter petitions. The Parliamentary government had its way but it became clear that the division was not between Catholics and Protestants, but between Puritans and those who valued the Elizabethan settlement. (Maltby 1998, p. 24). The 1604 book was finally outlawed by Parliament in 1645 to be replaced by the Directory of Public Worship, which was more a set of instructions than a prayer book. How widely the Directory was used is not certain; there is some evidence of its having been purchased, in churchwardens' accounts, but not widely. The Prayer Book certainly was used clandestinely in some places, not least because the Directory made no provision at all for burial services. Following the execution of Charles I in 1649 and the establishment of the Commonwealth under Lord Protector Cromwell, it would not be reinstated until shortly after the restoration of the monarchy to England.

    John Evelyn records in his Diary taking Communion according to the 1604 Prayer Book rite:

    Christmas Day 1657. I went to London with my wife to celebrate Christmas Day. . . Sermon ended, as [the minister] was giving us the holy sacrament, the chapel was surrounded with soldiers, and all the communicants and assembly surprised and kept prisoners by them, some in the house, others carried away... These wretched miscreants held their muskets against us as we came up to receive the sacred elements, as if they would have shot us at the altar.

    Laud's abortive 1637 Prayer book.In 1557, the Scots Protestant lords had adopted the English Prayer Book of 1552, for reformed worship in Scotland. However, when John Knox returned to Scotland in 1559, he continued to use the Form of Prayer he had created for the English exiles in Geneva, and in 1564, this supplanted the Book of Common Prayer under the title of the Book of Common Order.

    Following the accession of King James VI of Scotland to the throne of England, his son King Charles I, with the assistance of Archbishop Laud sought to impose the prayer book on Scotland (Perry 1922). The book concerned was not, however, the 1559 book but very much that of 1549,the first book of Edward VI. First used in 1637, it was never accepted, having been violently rejected by the Scots. Following the Wars of the Three Kingdoms (including the English Civil War), the Church of Scotland was re-established on a presbyterian basis but by the Act of Comprehension 1690, the rump of Episcopalians were allowed to hold onto their benefices. For liturgy they looked to Laud's book and in 1724 the first of the 'Wee Bookies' was published, containing, for the sake of economy, the central part of the Communion beginning with the Offertory (Perry 1922, Chapter 4).

    Between then and 1764, when a more formal revised version was published, a number of things happened which were to separate the Scottish Episcopal liturgy more firmly from either the English books of 1549 or 1559. First, informal changes were made to the order of the various parts of the service and inserting words indicating a sacrificial intent to the Eucharist; secondly, as a result of Bishop Rattray's researches into the liturgies of St. James and St. Clement, published in 1744, the form of the invocation was changed. These changes were incorporated into the 1764 book which was to be the liturgy of the Scottish Episcopal Church (until 1911 when it was revised) but it was to influence the liturgy of the Episcopal Church in the United States. A completely new revision was finished in 1929, and several alternative orders of the communion service and other services have been prepared since then.

    The 1662 prayer book was printed only two years after the restoration of the monarchy, following the Savoy Conference convened by Royal Warrant to review the book of 1559 (Procter & Frere 1965, p. 169). Attempts by Presbyterians led by Richard Baxter to gain approval for an alternative service book failed. Their major objections (exceptions) of the English Puritans were: firstly, that it was improper for the lay congregation to take any vocal part in prayer (as in the Litany or Lord's Prayer), other than to say "Amen"; secondly, that no set prayer should exclude the option of an extempore alternative from the Minister; thirdly, that the Minister should have the option to omit part of the set liturgy at his discretion; fourthly, that short Collects should be replaced by longer prayers and exhortations; and fifthly, that all surviving "Catholic" ceremonial should be removed (Harrison 1982, p. 53). In reply to the Presbyterian Exceptions, some 600 changes were made to the book of 1559, mostly minor; giving the Puritans little of what they wanted, but implementing rather more (though by no means all) of the changes suggested by High Anglicans (Edwards 1983, p. 312). Among them was the reference, in the prayer for the Church Militant, to those 'departed this life in thy faith and fear', contradicting the statement at the beginning of the prayer that it was for the church 'militant here in earth'. Secondly, an attempt was made to restore the Offertory. This was achieved by the insertion of the words 'and oblations' into the prayer for the Church and the revision of the rubric so as to require the monetary offerings to be brought to the Table (instead of being put in the poor box) and the bread and wine placed upon the Table. Previously it had not been clear when and how bread and wine got onto the altar. The so-called manual acts, whereby the priest took the bread and the cup during the prayer of consecration, which had been deleted in 1552, were restored; and an "Amen" was inserted after the words of institution and before the Communion, hence separating the elements of Consecration and Communion that Cranmer had tried to knit together. After the communion, the unused but consecrated bread and wine were to be reverently consumed in church rather than being taken away for the Priest's own use. By such subtle means were Cranmer's purposes further confused, leaving it for generations to argue over the precise theology of the rite. One change made that constituted a concession to the Presbyterian Exceptions, was the updating and re-insertion of the so-called Black Rubric, which had been removed in 1559. This now declared that kneeling in order to receive the communion did not imply adoration of the species of the Eucharist nor 'to any Corporal Presence of Christ's natural Flesh and Blood'—which, said the rubric, were in heaven, not here.

    Unable to accept the new book 1,760 ministers were deprived of their livings (Procter & Frere 1965, p. 201). In effect, the 1662 Prayer Book marked the end of a period of just over 100 years, when a common form of liturgy served for almost all Reformed public worship in England; and the start of the continuing division between Anglicans and Nonconformists (Edwards 1983, p. 313). The actual language of the 1662 revision was little changed from that of Cranmer. With two exceptions, some words and phrases which had become archaic were modernized; secondly, the readings for the Epistle and Gospel at the Holy Communion, which had been set out in full since 1549, were now set to the text of the 1611 Authorized Version of the Bible. The Psalter, which had not been printed out in the 1549, 1552 or 1559 Books—was in 1662 provided in Miles Coverdale's translation from the Great Bible of 1538.

    It was this edition which was to be the official Book of Common Prayer, during the growth of the British Empire, and, as a result, has been a great influence on the prayer books of Anglican churches worldwide, liturgies of other denominations in English, and of the English language as a whole.

    After the 1662 prayer book, development ceased in England until the twentieth century; that it did was, however, a bit of a close run thing. On the death of Charles II his brother, a Roman Catholic, became James II. James wished to achieve toleration for those of his own Roman Catholic faith, whose practices were still banned. This, however, drew the Presbyterians closer to the Church of England in their common desire to resist 'popery'; talk of reconciliation and liturgical compromise was thus in the air. But with the flight of James in 1688 and the arrival of the Calvinist William of Orange the position of the parties changed. The Presbyterians could achieve toleration of their practices without such a right being given to Roman Catholics and without, therefore, their having to submit to the Church of England, even with a liturgy more acceptable to them. They were now in a much stronger position to demand changes that were ever more radical. John Tillotson, Dean of Canterbury pressed the king to set up a Commission to produce such a revision (Fawcett 1973, p. 26). The so-called Liturgy of Comprehension of 1689, which was the result, conceded two thirds of the Presbyterian demands of 1661; but when it came to Convocation the members, now more fearful of William's perceived agenda, did not even discuss it and its contents were, for a long time, not even accessible (Fawcett 1973, p. 45). This work, however, did go on to influence the prayer books of many British colonies.

    By the 19th century other pressures upon the book of 1662 had arisen. Adherents of the Oxford Movement, begun in 1833, raised questions about the relationship of the Church of England to the apostolic church and thus about its forms of worship. Known as Tractarians after their production of Tracts for the Times on theological issues, they advanced the case for the Church of England being essentially a part of the 'Western Church', of which the Roman Catholic Church was the chief representative. The illegal use of elements of the Roman rite, the use of candles, vestments and incense, practices known as Ritualism, had become widespread and led to the Public Worship Regulation Act 1874 which established a new system of discipline, intending to bring the 'Romanisers' into conformity (Carpenter 1933, p. 234). The Act had no effect on illegal practices: five clergy were imprisoned for contempt of court and after the trial of the much loved Bishop Edward King of Lincoln, it became clear that some revision of the liturgy had to be embarked upon (Carpenter 1933, p. 246).

    One branch of the ritualistic movement argued that both 'Romanisers' (by imitating the Church of Rome) and their Evangelical opponents (by imitating Reformed churches) transgressed the Ornaments Rubric of 1559, 'that such Ornaments of the Church, and of the Ministers thereof, at all Times of their Ministration, shall be retained, and be in use, as were in this Church of England, by the Authority of Parliament, in the Second Year of the Reign of King Edward the Sixth'. These adherents of ritualism, among whom were Percy Dearmer and others, claimed that the Ornaments Rubric prescribed the ritual usages of the Sarum Rite with the exception of a few minor things already abolished by the early reformation. Following a Royal Commission report in 1906, work began on a new prayer book, work that was to take twenty years.

    In 1927, this proposed prayer book was finished. It was decided, during development, that the use of the services therein would be decided on by each given congregation, so as to avoid as much conflict as possible with traditionalists. With these open guidelines the book was granted approval by the Church of England Convocations and Church Assembly in July 1927. Since the Church of England is a state church, a further step, sending the proposed revision to Parliament, was required. A Resolution under the Church of England Assembly (Powers) Act 1919, directing that the Measure should be presented to His Majesty, was passed in the House of Lords by a large majority. However a similar resolution was defeated in the House of Commons on December 15, 1927 when the MPs William Joynson-Hicks and Rosslyn Mitchell "reached and inflamed all the latent Protestant prejudices in the House" and argued strongly against it on the grounds that the proposed book was "papistical" and was a restoration of the Roman Mass and implied the doctrine of Transubstantiation.

    Early in the year 1928 a second Measure (known as the Prayer Book Measure 1928) was introduced in the Church Assembly, proposing to authorise the use of the Deposited Book with certain amendments thereto which were set out in a Schedule to Measure. This Measure again was approved by large majorities in both the Convocations and the Church Assembly; but a Resolution directing that it should be presented to His Majesty was defeated in the House of Commons on June 14, 1928. In response to this rejection, the bishops issued a unanimous statement, asserting the Church's right to order its forms of worship, and in 1929 the Upper House of the Convocation of Canterbury resolved that bishops might approve the use of the 1928 book, notwithstanding the lack of parliamentary authority. It became common for Prayer Books to print the 1662 and 1928 forms of service in parallel columns, although the legal basis of the revision remained unclear. The 1928 revised forms of Matrimony and Baptism were quite widely adopted, but those of other rites tended not to be; the consequence, in practice, being very wide variation in liturgical practice from parish to parish, with very few churchmen adhering consistently to the strict observation of either the 1662 or the 1928 forms of worship.

    The effect of the failure of the 1928 book was salutary: no further attempts were made to change the book, other than those required for the changes to the monarchy. Instead a different process, that of producing an alternative book, led to the publication of Series 1, 2 and 3 in the 1960s, the 1980 Alternative Service Book and subsequently to the 2000 Common Worship series of books. Both differ substantially from the Book of Common Prayer, though the latter includes in the Order Two form of the Holy Communion a very slight revision of the prayer book service, largely along the lines proposed for the 1928 Prayer Book. Order One follows the pattern of modern liturgical scholarship.

    In 2003, a Roman Catholic adaptation of the BCP was published called the Book of Divine Worship. It is a compromise of material drawn from the proposed 1928 book, the 1979 ECUSA book, and the Roman Missal. Catholic converts from Anglicanism within the Anglican Use published it primarily for their use.

    With British colonial expansion from the seventeenth century onwards, the Anglican Church was planted across the globe. These churches at first used and then revised the use of the Prayer Book, until they, like their parent, produced prayer books which took into account the developments in liturgical study and practice in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, which come under the general heading of the Liturgical Movement.

    The Book Of Common Prayers in Africa is the same as the ones in other places each province has its own signature which is put a the cover pages of the book as there are some words that differ from province to another. In yoruba it is known as "Iwe Adura ti gbogbo Ijo Anglikan".

    The Book of Common Prayer is called 公禱書 in Chinese (pinyin:Gung Dao Shu, Jyutping: Gung Tou Sy). The former dioceses in the now defunct Chung Hua Sheng Kung Hui had their own Book of Common Prayer. The General Synod and the College of Bishops of Chung Hwa Sheng Kung Hui planned to publish a unified version for the use of all Anglican churches in China in 1949, which was the 400th anniversary of the first publishing of the Book of Common Prayer. After the communists took over mainland China, the Diocese of Hong Kong and Macao became independent of the Chung Hua Sheng Kung Hui, and continued to use the edition issued in Shanghai in 1938 with a revision in 1959. This edition, also called the "Black-Cover Book of Common Prayer" 黑皮公禱書 because of its black cover, still remains in use after the establishment of the Hong Kong Sheng Kung Hui (Anglican province in Hong Kong). The language style of "Black-Cover Book of Common Prayer" is closer to Classical Chinese than contemporary Chinese.

    The Anglican Church of Korea has made a 1965 translation of the BCP in Korean and called it "gong-do-gi-do-mun" meaning common prayers. In 1994, the prayers announced "allowed" by the 1982 Bishops Council of the Anglican Church of Korea was published in a second version of the Book of Common Prayers In 2004, the National Anglican Council published the third and the current Book of Common Prayers known as "seoung-gong-hwe gi-do-seo" or the "Anglican Prayers", including the Daily Masses, Special Masses, Baptism, Confirmation, Funeral Mass, Wedding Mass, Rite of Ordination Mass, and all of the other events the Anglican Church of Korea celebrates. The Diction of the books have changed from the 1965 version to the 2004 version. For example, the word "God" which used to be "Cheon-joo" was altered to "ha-nu-nim" according to the Public Christian translation. The Bible that the Anglican Church of Korea uses is the 1994 edition called the "gong-dong beon-yuk-seong-seo" or the Common Translation Bible.

    The Church of South India was the first modern Episcopal uniting church, consisting as it did, from its foundation in 1947, at the time of Indian independence, of Anglicans, Methodists, Congregationalists, Presbyterians and Reformed Christians. Its liturgy, from the first, combined the free use of Cranmer's language with an adherence to the principles of congregational participation and the centrality of the Eucharist, much in line with the Liturgical Movement. Because it was a minority church of widely differing traditions in a non-Christian culture (except in Kerala, where Christianity has a long history), practice varied wildly.

    As the Philippines is connected to the worldwide Anglican Communion through the Episcopal Church in the Philippines, the main edition of the Book of Common Prayer throughout the Islands is the same as that of the United States. However, with the granting of the full autonomy on 1 May 1990, the Philippine Independent Church, which is in full communion with the Anglican Communion, has published its own Book of Common Prayer. This is notable for the inclusion of the prayers for the Misa de Gallo, a popular tradition among Filipinos.

    Aside from the American Book of Common Prayer and the newly published Philippine Book of Common Prayer, the Chinese community of Saint Stephen's Pro-Cathedral in the Diocese of the Central Philippines uses the English-Chinese Diglot Book of Common Prayers, published by the Episcopal Church of Southeast Asia.

    William Bedell had undertaken an Irish translation of the Book of Common Prayer in 1606. An Irish translation of the revised prayer book of 1662 was effected by John Richardson (1664–1747) and published in 1712. It has been revised several times, and the present edition has been used since 2004.[clarification needed]

    An Act of Parliament passed in the year 1563, entitled “An Act for the Translating of the Bible and the Divine Service into the Welsh Tongue,” ordered that the Old and New Testament, together with the Book of Common Prayer, were to be translated into Welsh. A translation by Richard Davies, bishop of St David's and the scholar William Salesbury was published in 1567 by Humphrey Toy as Y Llyfr Gweddi Gyffredin. A new revision — probably by Bishop George Griffith (1601–1666), of St Asaph - based on the revised English book of 1662, was published in 1664.[1]

    Even after the creation of the Church in Wales 1920, the 1662 book (and its Welsh equivalent) was used until 1966, when trials of new services began. The current book was published in 1984, and is currently under revision.

    The first Manx translation of the Book of Common Prayer was made by Bishop John Phillips of Sodor and Man in 1610. A more successful "New Version" by Bishop Mark Hildesley (1698–1772) was in use until 1824 when English liturgy became universal on the island.[1]

    The failure to translate the first Prayer Book into the Cornish language and the imposition of English liturgy over the Latin rite in the whole of Cornwall, led to the Prayer Book Rebellion of 1549.(Caraman)

    The Anglican Church of Australia, until 1981 officially known as the Church of England in Australia and Tasmania, became self-governing in 1961. Among other things the General Synod agreed that the Book of Common Prayer was to 'be regarded as the authorised standard of worship and doctrine in this Church ...'. In 1978 An Australian Prayer Book was produced which sought to adhere to this principle, so that where the Liturgical Committee could not agree on a formulation, the words or expressions of the BCP were to be used (The Church of England in Australia Trust Corporation 1978). The result was conservative revision.

    In 1995 a similar process could be observed as elsewhere with the production of A Prayer Book for Australia which departed from both the structure and wording of the BCP. The process was accompanied by numerous objections, notably from the deeply conservatively evangelical Diocese of Sydney which noted the loss of BCP wording and of an explicit 'biblical doctrine of substitutionary atonement'. The Diocese of Sydney has developed its own small prayer book, called Sunday Services, to supplement the existing prayer book and preserve the original theology, which the Sydney diocese asserts has been changed.

    The Anglican Church of Canada developed its first Book of Common Prayer separately from the English version in 1918, which received final authorization from General Synod in 1922. The revision of 1959 was much more substantial, bearing a family relationship to that of the abortive 1928 book in England. The language was conservatively modernized, and additional seasonal material was added. As in England, while many prayers were retained the structure of the Communion service was altered: a Prayer of Oblation was added to the Eucharistic prayer after the 'words of institution', thus reflecting the rejection of Cranmer's theology in liturgical developments across the Anglican Communion. More controversially, the Psalter included in the book omitted certain sections, including the entirety of Psalm 58.[2] General Synod gave final authorization to the revision in 1962, to coincide with the 300th anniversary of the 1662 Book of Common Prayer. A French translation, Le Recueil des Prières de la Communauté Chrétienne, was published in 1967.

    After a period of experimentation with the publication of various supplements, the Book of Alternative Services was published in 1985. This book (which owes much to Roman Catholic, Lutheran, Anglican, and other sources) has widely supplanted the 1959 book, though the latter remains authorized. As in other places, there has been a reaction and the Canadian version of the Book of Common Prayer has found supporters.

    The Book of Common Prayer has also been translated into these North American indigenous languages: Cowitchan, Cree, Haida, Ntlakyapamuk, Slavey, Eskimo-Aleut, Dakota, Delaware, Mohawk, Ojibwe.[3]

    Joseph Gilfillan was the chief editor of the 1911 Ojibwa edition of the Book of Common Prayer entitled Iu Wejibuewisi Mamawi Anamiawini Mazinaigun (Iw Wejibwewizi Maamawi-anami'aawini Mazina'igan) (Wohlers 2007, Chapter 68).

    The Episcopal Church separated itself from the Church of England in 1789, having been established in the United States in 1607. Its prayer book, published in 1790, had as its sources, the 1662 English book and the 1764 Scottish Liturgy (see above) which Bishop Seabury of Connecticut had brought over following his consecration in Aberdeen in 1784, containing elements of each (Perry 1922). The preface to the 1789 Book of Common Prayer says "this Church is far from intending to depart from the Church of England in any essential point of doctrine, discipline, or worship...further than local circumstances require." There were some notable differences. For example, in the Communion service after the words of institution there follows a Prayer of Oblation from 1549, but into which were inserted the words 'which we now offer unto thee' (in small caps) with reference to the 'holy gifts' An epiclesis was included, as in the Scottish book, though modified to meet reformist objections. Overall the book was modelled in the English Prayer Book, the Convention having resisted attempts at deletion and revision (McGarvey & Gibson 1907).

    Further revisions occurred in 1892 and 1928, in which minor changes were made, removing, for instance, some of Cranmer's Exhortations and introducing such innovations as prayers for the dead.

    In 1979, a more substantial revision was made. There were now two rites for the most common services, the first that kept most of the language of 1928, and the second using only contemporary language (some of it newly composed, and some adapted from the older language). Many changes were made in the rubrics and the shapes of the services, which were generally made for both the traditional and contemporary language versions. However, there was arguably a greater degree of continuity than was the case in England, which may account for the fact that all the books of the series, from 1790 to 1979 retain the same title. The 1979 book owes a good deal to the Liturgical Movement and to the 19th century Catholic revival. Many traditionalists, both Anglo-Catholics and Evangelicals, felt alienated by the theological changes made in the 1979 BCP, and in 1991 The Church of the Good Shepherd in Rosemont, PA published a book entitled, the Anglican Service Book which is "a traditional language adaptation of the 1979 Book of Common Prayer together with the Psalter or Psalms of David and Additional Devotions." Books like this are allowed in the Episcopal Church because of a rubric in the 1979 Prayer Book which allows for the translation of the contemporary language into the traditional language of the 1928 Book of Common Prayer.

    Even so, the revision caused some controversy and in 2000, the General Convention of the Episcopal Church issued an apology to those "offended or alienated during the time of liturgical transition to the 1979 Book of Common Prayer." Use of the 1928 Book of Common Prayer is currently discouraged. Article X of the Canons of the Episcopal Church provides that "[t]he Book of Common Prayer, as now established or hereafter amended by the authority of this Church, shall be in use in all the Dioceses of this Church," which, of course, is a reference to the 1979 Book of Common Prayer, but many parishes[4] still use it either regularly or occasionally, for pastoral sensitivity, for doctrinal reasons and for the beauty of its language.

    The Prayer Book Cross was erected in San Francisco's Golden Gate Park in 1894 as a gift from the Church of England.[5] Created by Ernest Coxhead, it stands on one of the higher points in Golden Gate Park. It is located between John F. Kennedy Drive and Park Presidio Drive, near Cross Over Drive. This 57 ft (17 m) sandstone cross commemorates the first use of the Book of Common Prayer in California by Sir Francis Drake's chaplain on June 24, 1579.

    The Book of Common Prayer has had a great influence on a number of other denominations. While theologically different, the language and flow of the service of many other churches owes a great debt to the prayer book. In particular, many Christian prayer books have drawn on the Collects for the Sundays of the Churches Year—mostly translated by Cranmer from a wide range of Christian traditions, but including a number of original compositions—which are widely recognized as masterpieces of compressed liturgical construction.

    John Wesley, an Anglican priest whose revivalist preaching led to the creation of Methodism wrote, "I believe there is no Liturgy in the world, either in ancient or modern language, which breathes more of a solid, scriptural, rational piety than the Common Prayer of the Church of England." Many Methodist churches in England and the United States continued to use a slightly revised version of the book for communion services well into the 20th century. In the United Methodist Church, the liturgy for Eucharistic celebrations is almost identical to what is found in the Book of Common Prayer, as are some of the other liturgies and services.

    A unique variant was developed in 1785 in Boston, Massachusetts when the historic King's Chapel (founded 1686) left the Episcopal Church and became an independent Unitarian church (Kings Chapel 2007). To this day, King's Chapel uniquely uses The Book of Common Prayer According to the Use in King's Chapel in its worship (Kings Chapel 2007).

    In the 1960s, when Roman Catholicism adopted a vernacular revised mass, many translations of the English prayers followed the form of Cranmer's translation.[citation needed]

    Together with the Authorized version and the works of Shakespeare, the Book of Common Prayer has been one of the three fundamental underpinnings of modern English. As it has been in regular use for centuries, many phrases from its services have passed into the English language, either as deliberate quotations or as unconscious borrowings. They are used in non-liturgical ways. For example, many authors have used quotes from the prayer book as titles for their books.

    Some examples of well-known phrases from the Book of Common Prayer are:

    "Speak now or forever hold your peace" from the marriage liturgy.
    "Till death us do part", from the marriage liturgy.
    "Earth to earth, ashes to ashes, dust to dust" from the funeral service.
    "From all the deceits of the world, the flesh, and the devil" from the litany.
    "Read, mark, learn, and inwardly digest" from the collect for the second Sunday of Advent.
    "Evil liver" from the rubrics for Holy Communion.
    "All sorts and conditions of men" from the Order for Morning Prayer.
    "Peace in our time" from Morning Prayer, Versicles.
    The phrase "till death us do part" ("till death us depart" before 1662[6]) has been changed to "till death do us part" in some more recent prayer books, such as the 1962 Canadian Book of Common Prayer.

    References and allusions to Prayer Book services in the works of Shakespeare were tracked down and identified by Richmond Noble (Noble 1935, p. 82). Derision of the Prayer Book or its contents "in any interludes, plays, songs, rhymes, or by other open words" was a criminal offence under the 1559 Act of Uniformity,[7] and consequently Shakespeare avoids too direct reference; but Noble particularly identifies the reading of the Psalter according to the Great Bible version specified in the Prayer Book, as the biblical book generating the largest number of Biblical references in Shakespeare's plays. Noble found a total of 157 allusions to the Psalms in the plays of the First Folio, relating to 62 separate Psalms—all, save one, of which he linked to the version in the Psalter, rather than those in the Geneva Bible or Bishops' Bible. In addition, there are a small number of direct allusions to liturgical texts in the Prayer Book; e.g. Henry VIII 3:2 where Wolsey states "Vain Pomp and Glory of this World, I hate ye!", a clear reference to the rite of Public Baptism; where the Godparents are asked "Doest thou forsake the vaine pompe and glory of the worlde..?"

    More recently, P.D. James used phrases from the Book of Common Prayer and made them into bestselling titles—Devices and Desires and The Children of Men, while Alfonso Cuarón's 2006 film Children of Men placed the phrase onto cinema marquees worldwide.

    In most of the world the Book of Common Prayer can be freely reproduced as it is long out of copyright. This is not the case in the United Kingdom itself.

    In the United Kingdom, the British Crown holds the rights to the Book of Common Prayer. The rights fall outside the scope of copyright as defined in statute law. Instead, they fall under the purview of the royal prerogative and as such, they are perpetual in subsistence. Publishers are licensed to reproduce the Book of Common Prayer under letters patent. In England, Wales and Northern Ireland the letters patent are held by the Queen's Printer, and in Scotland by the Scottish Bible Board. The office of Queen's Printer has been associated with the right to reproduce the Bible for many years, with the earliest known reference coming in 1577. In England, Wales and Northern Ireland the Queen's Printer is Cambridge University Press. CUP inherited the right of being Queen's Printer when they took over the firm of Eyre & Spottiswoode in the late 20th century. Eyre & Spottiswoode had been Queen's Printer since 1901. Other letters patent of similar antiquity grant Cambridge University Press and Oxford University Press the right to produce the Book of Common Prayer independently of the Queen's Printer.

    Caraman, Philip (1994), The Western Rising 1549: the Prayer Book Rebellion, Tiverton: Westcountry Books, ISBN 189838603X
    Careless, Sue (2003), Discovering the Book of Common Prayer: A hands-on approach (Volume 1: Daily Prayer), Toronto: Anglican Book Centre Publishing, ISBN 1-55126-398-X
    Carpenter, Spencer Cecil (1933), Church and people, 1789-1889; a history of the Church of England from William Wilberforce to "Lux mundi", London: SPCK
    Chapman, Mark (2006), Anglicanism: A Very Short Introduction, Oxford University Press, ISBN 0192806939
    Church of England (1662), The Book of Common Prayer, London: Everyman's Library (published 1999), ISBN 1-85715-241-7
    Church of England (1957), The First and Second Prayer Books of King Edward VI, London: Everyman's Library, ISBN 0460004484
    The Church of England in Australia Trust Corporation (1978), An Australian Prayer Book, St.Andrew's House, Sydney Square, Sydney: Anglican Information Office Press, ISBN 0-909827-7-96
    Clarke, William Kemp Lowther (1954), Liturgy and worship : a companion to the prayer book of the Anglican communion, London: SPCK
    Duffy (a), Eamon (1992), The Stripping of the Altars: Traditional Religion in England, 1400-1580, Yale University Press, ISBN 0300108281
    Duffy (b), Eamon (2003), The Voices of Morebath: Reformation and Rebellion in an English Village, Yale University Press, ISBN 0300098251
    Edwards, David (1983), Christian England: From the Reformation to the 18th Century, Collins, ISBN 0002151456
    Fawcett, Timothy J. (1973), The liturgy of comprehension 1689: An abortive attempt to revise the Book of common prayer, Mayhew McCrimmon, ISBN 0855970316
    Furlong, Monica (2000), C of E: The State It's In, Hodder & Stoughton, ISBN 0340693991
    Gibson, E.C.S (1910), The First and Second Prayer Books of Edward VI, Everyman's Library
    Guy, John (1988), Tudor England, Oxford University Press, ISBN 0192852132
    Harrison, D.E.W.; Sansom, Michael C (1982), Worship in the Church of England, London: SPCK, ISBN 0-281-03843-0
    Kings Chapel (2007), http://www.kings-chapel.org/history.html, retrieved 2007-10-10
    Maltby, Judith (1998), Prayer Book and People in Elizabethan and Early Stuart England, Cambridge University Press, ISBN 0521453135
    Marsh, Christopher (1998), Popular Religion in Sixteenth-Century England: Holding their Peace, Macmillan, ISBN 0312210949
    Maxwell, William (1965), The Liturgical Portions of the Genevan Service Book, The Faith Press
    MacCulloch (a), Diarmaid (1996), Thomas Cranmer, Yale University Press, ISBN 0-300-06688-0
    MacCulloch (b), Diarmaid (1999), "Introduction", in Church of England, The Book of Common Prayer, London: Everyman's Library, ISBN 1-85715-241-7
    McGarvey, William; Gibson, Frederick (1907), Liturgiæ Americanæ or the Book of Common Prayer as used in the United States of America compared with the proposed book of 1786 and with the Prayer Book of the Church of England and an historical account and documents, Philadelphia Church Publishing Company
    Noble, Richmond (1935), Shakespeare's Biblical Knowledge and Use of the Book of Common Prayer, SPCK
    Perry, W. (1922), Scottish Prayer Book, Its Value & History, Mowbrays
    Procter, F; Frere, W H (1965), A New History of the Book of Common Prayer, St. Martin's Press
    Wohlers, Charles, "Chapter 68 - The Algonquian", The Book of Common Prayer among the Nations of the World, Family, http://justus.anglican.org/resources/bcp/Muss-Arnolt/part7b.htm, retrieved 2007-09-10



    Last edited by orthodoxymoron on Wed Nov 23, 2011 5:24 pm; edited 1 time in total

    orthodoxymoron

    Posts: 5088
    Join date: 2010-09-28

    Re: Archangelic Queens of Heaven and the United States of the Solar System

    Post  orthodoxymoron on Wed Nov 23, 2011 1:27 am

    What would become of someone who took this thread very seriously, and studied it for a couple of years, in a devotional and scholarly manner? Would they become a leader in a Brave New Universe, or would they go insane? I'm trying to personally answer these questions, as I try to internalize all of this madness. To me, this will remain a combination of fact and fantasy, as Theological and Political Science Fiction, which attempts to approximate reality, in light of all of the new forbidden knowledge. I doubt that you will find anything quite like this thread anywhere else. Despite my obvious failings and weaknesses, I think there might be something of real value in this thread, but only for those who really study it, who read all of the mentioned books, and watch all of the linked videos several times. I continue to think that we are on the brink of extinction, and I will require a helluva lot of proof before I decide that all is well, and that everything is fine. Consider this thread to be an Orthodoxymoron Manifesto for the Society of Orthodoxymoron and the Establishment of the Orthodoxymoron Galactic Empire. I really do need professional help, don't I? One would have to be a genuine insider, for decades, to really know what's going on, and I want to make this perfectly clear 'I Am Not an Insider!' So really, much of this thread might be rendered invalid and useless by a brutal gang of facts or dracs. I'm simply attempting to think through what might be involved in turning this purgatory into paradise, if this would even be allowed by the galactic powers that be. This still feels like death-row, and I so hope that I'm wrong.

    I think it would be cool to have a dream-team of lawyers use the 'Federalist Papers' to do battle with a dream-team of lawyers using the 'Anti-Federalist Papers' for a couple of months. Perhaps this has already been attempted. Or how about a dream-team of theologians using the 'Teachings of Jesus' to do battle with a dream-team of theologians using the 'Pauline Epistles'. Wouldn't that be fun?! And what about having the current incarnations of Osiris, Isis, Horus, and Set having an online battle regarding solar system governance and galactic issues? What did you think of my 'vision' of Lord Rothschild, Anna (in 'V'), Pope Pius XII, and Adolph Hitler (Osiris, Isis, Horus, and Set?) meeting on an Asteroid-Queenship in geosynchronous orbit -- in 1939? If such a meeting did occur, who might've been the chair-being? Possibly a nine-foot tall draconian reptilian? I've heard stories. I continue to think that we have been lied to regarding most of the history of the world, and perhaps for good reason. I continue to seek understanding, rather than condemnation, and I am not in a great big hurry to 'wake-up' the general public. I intend to simply study the territory I have covered in this thread, and maybe write a couple of sci-fi novels and devotional books over the next couple of years. I'd rather not write any books, but I really need to raise some cash.

    Should I try to become a Bad-Butt SonofaBitch Megalomaniac in connection with the United States of the Solar System and the Anglo-Catholic Church? Is that the only approach that anyone who is anyone understands in this God-Forsaken Solar System? Are the Four Gospels a Recipe for Failure? Again, I think the Historical Jesus of the Gospels might be a misrepresentation of the True and Actual Historical Michael-Horus-Jesus. I think this thread provides a real political and theological workout, but don't expect it to make you happy, or to help you win friends and influence people. You really have to be a lone ranger (or a lone nut) in this neck of the woods. Nothing I have tried seems to work for me, yet I keep venturing where angels fear to tread. I have been told by those in the know that I am lucky to be alive. I've been told a lot of things which aren't very nice, and I just know that there has to be some interesting files and foia material regarding my reckless and rebellious activities. But really, if I felt better, I wouldn't be half as provocative as I am. I really think I am supernaturally targeted in the extreme. Every Day is World War Four. The Great Controversy Between Christ and Satan in the Conflict of the Ages is in it's Final Stages, and the Final Movements Will be Rapid Ones. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VeNxh5t5dHg

    What do you think of my concept of Sabbath Every Day, wherein work is considered sacred, and sacred services are offered every day, with no day being rendered more holy than another? What about everyone being 'saved', yet responsibility being responsibly rewarded? What about the concept of a central formal minimalist traditionalist church, with religious pluralism being encouraged throughout the solar system? I used to go to the Seventh-day Adventist church on Saturday, the Crystal Cathedral on Sunday morning, and then I would listen to John Wimber at the Vineyard on Sunday evening. No one church 'has it all'. Now I go to an imaginary church, but I'm thinking about finding a good liturgical church to attend. One more thing. When I speak of the 1928 Book of Common Prayer in Latin and English, complete with Sacred Classical Music, I am mostly thinking of the big, cathedral-like churches, where the royal model seems most appropriate. It seems to me that there should be a historical frame of reference, which experimental churches could keep referring back to. The experimental churches would help to keep the historical church alive and vital. That's the theory anyway. If people prefered to sit at home, watch football, eat chocolates, and drink beer -- instead of going to church -- that would be fine with me. I'm easy. Probably too easy. Here's a church for some of you blowhards...



    "Control of space means control of the world. From space, the masters of infinity would have the power to control the earth’s weather, to cause drought and flood, to change the tides and raise the levels of the sea, to divert the gulf stream and change temperate climates to frigid. There is something more important than the ultimate weapon. And that's the ultimate position. The position of total control over the Earth that lies somewhere in outer space." -Senator LBJ, Majority leader, Democratic caucus, Statement on Status of Nation’s Defense and Race for Space, January 7, 1958



    Last edited by orthodoxymoron on Fri Dec 02, 2011 9:34 am; edited 2 times in total

    orthodoxymoron

    Posts: 5088
    Join date: 2010-09-28

    Re: Archangelic Queens of Heaven and the United States of the Solar System

    Post  orthodoxymoron on Fri Nov 25, 2011 10:25 am

    "It was the last day of Christ's teaching in the temple. Of the vast throngs that were gathered at Jerusalem, the attention of all had been attracted to Him; the people had crowded the temple courts, watching the contest that had been in progress, and they eagerly caught every word that fell from His lips. Never before had such a scene been witnessed. There stood the young Galilean, bearing no earthly honor or royal badge. Surrounding Him were priests in their rich apparel, rulers with robes and badges significant of their exalted station, and scribes with scrolls in their hands, to which they made frequent reference. Jesus stood calmly before them, with the dignity of a king. As one invested with the authority of heaven, He looked unflinchingly upon His adversaries, who had rejected and despised His teachings, and who thirsted for His life. They had assailed Him in great numbers, but their schemes to ensnare and condemn Him had been in vain. Challenge after challenge He had met, presenting the pure, bright truth in contrast to the darkness and errors of the priests and Pharisees. He had set before these leaders their real condition, and the retribution sure to follow persistence in their evil deeds. The warning had been faithfully given. Yet another work remained for Christ to do. Another purpose was still to be accomplished.

    The interest of the people in Christ and His work had steadily increased. They were charmed with His teaching, but they were also greatly perplexed. They had respected the priests and rabbis for their intelligence and apparent piety. In all religious matters they had ever yielded implicit obedience to their authority. Yet they now saw these men trying to cast discredit upon Jesus, a teacher whose virtue and knowledge shone forth the brighter from every assault. They looked upon the lowering countenances of the priests and elders, and there saw discomfiture and confusion. They marveled that the rulers would not believe on Jesus, when His teachings were so plain and simple. They themselves knew not what course to take. With eager anxiety they watched the movements of those whose counsel they had always followed.

    In the parables which Christ had spoken, it was His purpose both to warn the rulers and to instruct the people who were willing to be taught. But there was need to speak yet more plainly. Through their reverence for tradition and their blind faith in a corrupt priesthood, the people were enslaved. These chains Christ must break. The character of the priests, rulers, and Pharisees must be more fully exposed. "The scribes and the Pharisees," He said, "sit in Moses' seat: all therefore whatsoever they bid you observe, that observe and do; but do not ye after their works: for they say, and do not." The scribes and Pharisees claimed to be invested with divine authority similar to that of Moses. They assumed to take his place as expounders of the law and judges of the people. As such they claimed from the people the utmost deference and obedience. Jesus bade His hearers do that which the rabbis taught according to the law, but not to follow their example. They themselves did not practice their own teaching.

    And they taught much that was contrary to the Scriptures. Jesus said, "They bind heavy burdens and grievous to be borne, and lay them on men's shoulders; but they themselves will not move them with one of their fingers." The Pharisees enjoined a multitude of regulations, having their foundation in tradition, and unreasonably restricting personal liberty. And certain portions of the law they so explained as to impose upon the people observances which they themselves secretly ignored, and from which, when it served their purpose, they actually claimed exemption.

    To make a show of their piety was their constant aim. Nothing was held too sacred to serve this end. To Moses God had said concerning His commandments, "Thou shalt bind them for a sign upon thine hand, and they shall be as frontlets between thine eyes." Deut. 6:8. These words have a deep meaning. As the word of God is meditated upon and practiced, the whole man will be ennobled. In righteous and merciful dealing, the hands will reveal, as a signet, the principles of God's law. They will be kept clean from bribes, and from all that is corrupt and deceptive. They will be active in works of love and compassion. The eyes, directed toward a noble purpose, will be clear and true. The expressive countenance, the speaking eye, will testify to the blameless character of him who loves and honors the word of God. But by the Jews of Christ's day all this was undiscerned. The command given to Moses was construed into a direction that the precepts of Scripture should be worn upon the person. They were accordingly written upon strips of parchment, and bound in a conspicuous manner about the head and wrists. But this did not cause the law of God to take a firmer hold of the mind and heart. These parchments were worn merely as badges,to attract attention. They were thought to give the wearers an air of devotion which would command the reverence of the people. Jesus struck a blow at this vain pretense:

    "But all their works they do for to be seen of men: they make broad their phylacteries, and enlarge the borders of their garments, and love the uppermost rooms at feasts, and the chief seats in the synagogues, and greetings in the markets, and to be called of men, Rabbi, Rabbi. But be not ye called Rabbi: for one is your Master, even Christ; and all ye are brethren. And call no man your father upon the earth: for One is your Father, which is in heaven. Neither be ye called master: for One is your Master, even Christ."

    In such plain words the Saviour revealed the selfish ambition that was ever reaching for place and power, displaying a mock humility, while the heart was filled with avarice and envy. When persons were invited to a feast, the guests were seated according to their rank, and those who were given the most honorable place received the first attention and special favors. The Pharisees were ever scheming to secure these honors. This practice Jesus rebuked. He also reproved the vanity shown in coveting the title of rabbi, or master. Such a title, He declared, belonged not to men, but to Christ. Priests, scribes, and rulers, expounders and administrators of the law, were all brethren, children of one Father. Jesus impressed upon the people that they were to give no man a title of honor indicating his control of their conscience or their faith.

    If Christ were on earth today, surrounded by those who bear the title of "Reverend" or "Right Reverend," would He not repeat His saying, "Neither be ye called masters: for One is your Master, even Christ"? The Scripture declares of God, "Holy and reverend is His name." Ps. 111:9. To what human being is such a title befitting? How little does man reveal of the wisdom and righteousness it indicates! How many of those who assume this title are misrepresenting the name and character of God! Alas, how often have worldly ambition, despotism, and the basest sins been hidden under the broidered garments of a high and holy office!

    The Saviour continued:

    "But he that is greatest among you shall be your servant. And whosoever shall exalt himself shall be abased; and he that shall humble himself shall be exalted." Again and again Christ had taught that true greatness is measured by moral worth. In the estimation of heaven, greatness of character consists in living for the welfare of our fellow men, in doing works of love and mercy. Christ the King of glory was a servant to fallen man.

    "Woe unto you, scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites," said Jesus; "for ye shut up the kingdom of heaven against men: for ye neither go in yourselves, neither suffer ye them that are entering to go in." By perverting the Scriptures, the priests and lawyers blinded the minds of those who would otherwise have received a knowledge of Christ's kingdom, and that inward, divine life which is essential to true holiness.

    "Woe unto you, scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites! for ye devour widows' houses, and for a pretense make long prayer: therefore ye shall receive the greater damnation." The Pharisees had great influence with the people, and of this they took advantage to serve their own interests. They gained the confidence of pious widows, and then represented it as a duty for them to devote their property to religious purposes. Having secured control of their money, the wily schemers used it for their own benefit. To cover their dishonesty, they offered long prayers in public, and made a great show of piety. This hypocrisy Christ declared would bring them the greater damnation. The same rebuke falls upon many in our day who make a high profession of piety. Their lives are stained by selfishness and avarice, yet they throw over it all a garment of seeming purity, and thus for a time deceive their fellow men. But they cannot deceive God. He reads every purpose of the heart, and will judge every man according to his deeds.

    Christ unsparingly condemned abuses, but He was careful not to lessen obligation. He rebuked the selfishness that extorted and misapplied the widow's gifts. At the same time He commended the widow who brought her offering for God's treasury. Man's abuse of the gift could not turn God's blessing from the giver.

    Jesus was in the court where were the treasure chests, and He watched those who came to deposit their gifts. Many of the rich brought large sums, which they presented with great ostentation. Jesus looked upon them sadly, but made no comment on their liberal offerings. Presently His countenance lighted as He saw a poor widow approach hesitatingly, as though fearful of being observed. As the rich and haughty swept by, to deposit their offerings, she shrank back as if hardly daring to venture farther. And yet she longed to do something, little though it might be, for the cause she loved. She looked at the gift in her hand. It was very small in comparison with the gifts of those around her, yet it was her all. Watching her opportunity, she hurriedly threw in her two mites, and turned to hasten away. But in doing this she caught the eye of Jesus, which was fastened earnestly upon her.

    The Saviour called His disciples to Him, and bade them mark the widow's poverty. Then His words of commendation fell upon her ear: "Of a truth I say unto you, that this poor widow hath cast in more than they all." Tears of joy filled her eyes as she felt that her act was understood and appreciated. Many would have advised her to keep her pittance for her own use; given into the hands of the well-fed priests, it would be lost sight of among the many costly gifts brought to the treasury. But Jesus understood her motive. She believed the service of the temple to be of God's appointment, and she was anxious to do her utmost to sustain it. She did what she could, and her act was to be a monument to her memory through all time, and her joy in eternity. Her heart went with her gift; its value was estimated, not by the worth of the coin, but by the love to God and the interest in His work that had prompted the deed.

    Jesus said of the poor widow, She "hath cast in more than they all." The rich had bestowed from their abundance, many of them to be seen and honored by men. Their large donations had deprived them of no comfort, or even luxury; they had required no sacrifice, and could not be compared in value with the widow's mite.

    It is the motive that gives character to our acts, stamping them with ignominy or with high moral worth. Not the great things which every eye sees and every tongue praises does God account most precious. The little duties cheerfully done, the little gifts which make no show, and which to human eyes may appear worthless, often stand highest in His sight. A heart of faith and love is dearer to God than the most costly gift. The poor widow gave her living to do the little that she did. She deprived herself of food in order to give those two mites to the cause she loved. And she did it in faith, believing that her heavenly Father would not overlook her great need. It was this unselfish spirit and childlike faith that won the Saviour's commendation.

    Among the poor there are many who long to show their gratitude to God for His grace and truth. They greatly desire to share with their more prosperous brethren in sustaining His service. These souls should not be repulsed. Let them lay up their mites in the bank of heaven. If given from a heart filled with love for God, these seeming trifles become consecrated gifts, priceless offerings, which God smiles upon and blesses.

    When Jesus said of the widow, She "hath cast in more than they all," His words were true, not only of the motive, but of the results of her gift. The "two mites which make a farthing" have brought to God's treasury an amount of money far greater than the contributions of those rich Jews. The influence of that little gift has been like a stream, small in its beginning, but widening and deepening as it flowed down through the ages. In a thousand ways it has contributed to the relief of the poor and the spread of the gospel. Her example of self-sacrifice has acted and reacted upon thousands of hearts in every land and in every age. It has appealed to both the rich and the poor, and their offerings have swelled the value of her gift. God's blessing upon the widow's mite has made it the source of great results. So with every gift bestowed and every act performed with a sincere desire for God's glory. It is linked with the purposes of Omnipotence. Its results for good no man can measure.

    The Saviour continued His denunciations of the scribes and Pharisees: "Woe unto you, ye blind guides, which say, Whosoever shall swear by the temple, it is nothing; but whosoever shall swear by the gold of the temple, he is a debtor! Ye fools and blind: for whether is greater, the gold, or the temple that sanctifieth the gold? and, Whosoever shall swear by the altar, it is nothing; but whosoever sweareth by the gift that is upon it, he is guilty. Ye fools and blind: for whether is greater, the gift, or the altar that sanctifieth the gift?" The priests interpreted God's requirements according to their own false and narrow standard. They presumed to make nice distinctions as to the comparative guilt of various sins, passing over some lightly, and treating others of perhaps less consequence as unpardonable. For a money consideration they excused persons from their vows. And for large sums of money they sometimes passed over aggravated crimes. At the same time these priests and rulers would in other cases pronounce severe judgment for trivial offenses.

    "Woe unto you, scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites! for ye pay tithe of mint and anise and cummin, and have omitted the weightier matters of the law, judgment, mercy, and faith: these ought ye to have done, and not to leave the other undone." In these words Christ again condemns the abuse of sacred obligation. The obligation itself He does not set aside. The tithing system was ordained by God, and it had been observed from the earliest times. Abraham, the father of the faithful, paid tithes of all that he possessed. The Jewish rulers recognized the obligation of tithing, and this was right; but they did not leave the people to carry out their own convictions of duty. Arbitrary rules were laid down for every case. The requirements had become so complicated that it was impossible for them to be fulfilled. None knew when their obligations were met. As God gave it, the system was just and reasonable; but the priests and rabbis had made it a wearisome burden.

    All that God commands is of consequence. Christ recognized the payment of tithes as a duty; but He showed that this could not excuse the neglect of other duties. The Pharisees were very exact in tithing garden herbs, such as mint, anise, and rue; this cost them little, and it gave them a reputation for exactness and sanctity. At the same time their useless restrictions oppressed the people and destroyed respect for the sacred system of God's own appointing. They occupied men's minds with trifling distinctions, and turned their attention from essential truths. The weightier matters of the law, justice, mercy, and truth, were neglected. "These," Christ said, "ought ye to have done, and not to leave the other undone."

    Other laws had been perverted by the rabbis in like manner. In the directions given through Moses it was forbidden to eat any unclean thing. The use of swine's flesh, and the flesh of certain other animals, was prohibited, as likely to fill the blood with impurities, and to shorten life. But the Pharisees did not leave these restrictions as God had given them. They went to unwarranted extremes. Among other things the people were required to strain all the water used, lest it should contain the smallest insect, which might be classed with the unclean animals. Jesus, contrasting these trivial exactions with the magnitude of their actual sins, said to the Pharisees, "Ye blind guides, which strain at a gnat, and swallow a camel."

    "Woe unto you, scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites! for ye are like unto whited sepulchers, which indeed appear beautiful outward, but are within full of dead men's bones, and of all uncleanness." As the whited and beautifully decorated tomb concealed the putrefying remains within, so the outward holiness of the priests and rulers concealed iniquity. Jesus continued:

    "Woe unto you, scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites! because ye build the tombs of the prophets, and garnish the sepulchers of the righteous, and say, If we had been in the days of our fathers, we would not have been partakers with them in the blood of the prophets. Wherefore ye be witnesses unto yourselves, that ye are the children of them which killed the prophets." To show their esteem for the dead prophets, the Jews were very zealous in beautifying their tombs; but they did not profit by their teachings, nor give heed to their reproofs.

    In the days of Christ a superstitious regard was cherished for the resting places of the dead, and vast sums of money were lavished upon their decoration. In the sight of God this was idolatry. In their undue regard for the dead, men showed that they did not love God supremely, nor their neighbor as themselves. The same idolatry is carried to great lengths today. Many are guilty of neglecting the widow and the fatherless, the sick and the poor, in order to build expensive monuments for the dead. Time, money, and labor are freely spent for this purpose, while duties to the living--duties which Christ has plainly enjoined--are left undone.

    The Pharisees built the tombs of the prophets, and adorned their sepulchers, and said one to another, If we had lived in the days of our fathers, we would not have united with them in shedding the blood of God's servants. At the same time they were planning to take the life of His Son. This should be a lesson to us. It should open our eyes to the power of Satan to deceive the mind that turns from the light of truth. Many follow in the track of the Pharisees. They revere those who have died for their faith. They wonder at the blindness of the Jews in rejecting Christ. Had we lived in His day, they declare, we would gladly have received His teaching; we would never have been partakers in the guilt of those who rejected the Saviour. But when obedience to God requires self-denial and humiliation, these very persons stifle their convictions, and refuse obedience. Thus they manifest the same spirit as did the Pharisees whom Christ condemned.

    Little did the Jews realize the terrible responsibility involved in rejecting Christ. From the time when the first innocent blood was shed, when righteous Abel fell by the hand of Cain, the same history had been repeated, with increasing guilt. In every age prophets had lifted up their voices against the sins of kings, rulers, and people, speaking the words which God gave them, and obeying His will at the peril of their lives. From generation to generation there had been heaping up a terrible punishment for the rejecters of light and truth. This the enemies of Christ were now drawing down upon their own heads. The sin of the priests and rulers was greater than that of any preceding generation. By their rejection of the Saviour, they were making themselves responsible for the blood of all the righteous men slain from Abel to Christ. They were about to fill to overflowing their cup of iniquity. And soon it was to be poured upon their heads in retributive justice. Of this, Jesus warned them:

    "That upon you may come all the righteous blood shed upon the earth, from the blood of righteous Abel unto the blood of Zacharias son of Barachias, whom ye slew between the temple and the altar. Verily I say unto you, All these things shall come upon this generation."

    The scribes and Pharisees who listened to Jesus knew that His words were true. They knew how the prophet Zacharias had been slain. While the words of warning from God were upon his lips, a satanic fury seized the apostate king, and at his command the prophet was put to death. His blood had imprinted itself upon the very stones of the temple court, and could not be erased; it remained to bear testimony against apostate Israel. As long as the temple should stand, there would be the stain of that righteous blood, crying to God to be avenged. As Jesus referred to these fearful sins, a thrill of horror ran through the multitude.

    Looking forward, Jesus declared that the impenitence of the Jews and their intolerance of God's servants would be the same in the future as it had been in the past:

    "Wherefore, behold, I send unto you prophets, and wise men, and scribes: and some of them ye shall kill and crucify; and some of them shall ye scourge in your synagogues, and persecute them from city to city." Prophets and wise men, full of faith and the Holy Ghost,--Stephen, James, and many others,--would be condemned and slain. With hand uplifted to heaven, and a divine light enshrouding His person, Christ spoke as a judge to those before Him. His voice, that had so often been heard in gentleness and entreaty, was now heard in rebuke and condemnation. The listeners shuddered. Never was the impression made by His words and His look to be effaced.

    Christ's indignation was directed against the hypocrisy, the gross sins, by which men were destroying their own souls, deceiving the people and dishonoring God. In the specious deceptive reasoning of the priests and rulers He discerned the working of satanic agencies. Keen and searching had been His denunciation of sin; but He spoke no words of retaliation. He had a holy wrath against the prince of darkness; but He manifested no irritated temper. So the Christian who lives in harmony with God, possessing the sweet attributes of love and mercy, will feel a righteous indignation against sin; but he will not be roused by passion to revile those who revile him. Even in meeting those who are moved by a power from beneath to maintain falsehood, in Christ he will still preserve calmness and self-possession.

    Divine pity marked the countenance of the Son of God as He cast one lingering look upon the temple and then upon His hearers. In a voice choked by deep anguish of heart and bitter tears He exclaimed, "O Jerusalem, Jerusalem, thou that killest the prophets, and stonest them which are sent unto thee, how often would I have gathered thy children together, even as a hen gathereth her chickens under her wings, and ye would not!" This is the separation struggle. In the lamentation of Christ the very heart of God is pouring itself forth. It is the mysterious farewell of the long-suffering love of the Deity. Pharisees and Sadducees were alike silenced. Jesus summoned His disciples, and prepared to leave the temple, not as one defeated and forced from the presence of his adversaries, but as one whose work was accomplished. He retired a victor from the contest.

    The gems of truth that fell from Christ's lips on that eventful day were treasured in many hearts. For them new thoughts started into life, new aspirations were awakened, and a new history began. After the crucifixion and resurrection of Christ, these persons came to the front, and fulfilled their divine commission with a wisdom and zeal corresponding to the greatness of the work. They bore a message that appealed to the hearts of men, weakening the old superstitions that had long dwarfed the lives of thousands. Before their testimony human theories and philosophies became as idle fables. Mighty were the results flowing from the words of the Saviour to that wondering, awestruck crowd in the temple at Jerusalem.

    But Israel as a nation had divorced herself from God. The natural branches of the olive tree were broken off. Looking for the last time upon the interior of the temple, Jesus said with mournful pathos, "Behold, your house is left unto you desolate. For I say unto you, Ye shall not see Me henceforth, till ye shall say, Blessed is He that cometh in the name of the Lord." Hitherto He had called the temple His Father's house; but now, as the Son of God should pass out from those walls, God's presence would be withdrawn forever from the temple built to His glory. Henceforth its ceremonies would be meaningless, its services a mockery." -- 'The Desire of Ages' (Pgs. 610-20) by Ellen G. White

    Rabbis Don't Get Paid Much, But They Get to Keep the Tips! The Crucifixion Was Nothing Compared to This!


    Last edited by orthodoxymoron on Wed Nov 30, 2011 3:01 am; edited 2 times in total

    Floyd

    Posts: 4103
    Join date: 2010-04-16

    Re: Archangelic Queens of Heaven and the United States of the Solar System

    Post  Floyd on Fri Nov 25, 2011 12:08 pm

    Oxy..sorry to go off on a tanget. What do you think of that new series Teranova?
    Going back in time to start again?
    How does that fit in with the namaste constitution.
    Hope all is good
    F

    orthodoxymoron

    Posts: 5088
    Join date: 2010-09-28

    Re: Archangelic Queens of Heaven and the United States of the Solar System

    Post  orthodoxymoron on Fri Nov 25, 2011 12:17 pm

    Floyd, I will check-out Terranova and comment on it. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=X6aNEIZwPFc I've heard about it, but I haven't watched it yet. I keep getting the feeling that we all came from somewhere else, at least at the soul-level, and that where we came from was worse than here, but that we then proceeded to make Earth worse than where we came from, and that our attempt to make things better for ourselves really pissed-off some really nasty beings. I so hope that I'm wrong, because if I'm right, we are SO screwed. I've been trying to get more involved in Christocentric Biblical Egyptology from an African perspective. Imagine speaking with a Draconian Reptilian Egyptologist on the Darkside of the Moon!! Imagine what I'd be like if I took drugs!!! It seems as if the more I study, the dumber I get. I was reading about the post-WWII Nazis earlier today!!

    1. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=LZdSOR7O_r0
    2. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=tvdBKrodWic
    3. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zujvZLtRELg&feature=related
    4. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7yJ3zsTdCK8&feature=related
    5. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rPWA-tPqI0o&feature=related
    6. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=OOJOXZ43VAA&feature=related
    7. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=naPPZwgeqMA&feature=related
    8. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=HAkCmB_9ojs&feature=related
    9. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=p81we5eNLzE&feature=related
    10. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cLZ1BJXT_Xk&feature=related
    11. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=B-FizGL2CBM&feature=related
    12. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=G17q4SVqrgA&feature=related
    13. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fwihu7o6YxM&feature=related
    14. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MkIsURfRigQ&feature=related
    15. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GGk07cxriJg&feature=related


    Last edited by orthodoxymoron on Sun Nov 27, 2011 9:16 pm; edited 7 times in total

    Floyd

    Posts: 4103
    Join date: 2010-04-16

    Re: Archangelic Queens of Heaven and the United States of the Solar System

    Post  Floyd on Fri Nov 25, 2011 12:37 pm

    Its not bad though they go for all that teen and relationship crap that the disappointing V did. I thought series 2 of V was better with a harder edge but lets face it they put all the crap in to keep the advertisers happy.

    Enjoy your ventures into Christocentric Biblical Egyptology.

    Have you ever thought about collating your posts here and putting them in an ebook in PDF format.

    If you boxed clever you could have a little book in you somewhere.
    Not that I would presume you would be interested in doing that.
    F


    orthodoxymoron

    Posts: 5088
    Join date: 2010-09-28

    Re: Archangelic Queens of Heaven and the United States of the Solar System

    Post  orthodoxymoron on Fri Nov 25, 2011 12:56 pm

    Thank-you Floyd. I just use all of these shows as imagination platforms. The actual show is just the beginning. I think about Anna (in 'V') quite frequently, but not necessarily as portrayed in the show. In my mind, she is a composite character. Most recently, I have imagined Anna (as the reincarnation of Isis) meeting with Lord Rothschild, Pope Pius XII, and Adolph Hitler (as reincarnations of Osiris, Horus, and Set) on an Asteroid-Queenship in Geocentric Orbit in 1939 -- with Nine-Foot Tall Draconian Reptilians Present!! I'm one messed-up dude!! Dudes on Ludes Shouldn't Post on the Internet!! But wait!! Read this!! http://www.bibliotecapleyades.net/sociopolitica/esp_sociopol_rothschild05.htm And this!! http://www.bibliotecapleyades.net/sociopolitica/esp_sociopol_rothschild04.htm What if Anna-Isis has been the key-link between a Draconian-Reptilian Universe and the Human Race -- for thousands of years? What if Anna-Isis was and is a Draconian-Reptilian? Again, what if the Human Soul is Interdimensional Reptilian in nature? Again, what if we are a Human Island in a Reptilian Universe? What if Anna-Isis took orders from the Orion Draconian Reptilian Overlords, and then issued these orders to Lord Rothschild, Pope Pius XII, and Adolph Hitler?? I don't say this to be nasty or mean, unlike a lot of conspiracy theorists. I'm simply beginning to think that we are in more trouble than most of us think. A book would have to be quite a bit different than this thread. This material is pretty much 'in-house', and probably not for mass-consumption or prime-time. Actually, it's probably mostly a personal mental exercise. Unfortunately, it doesn't seem to be doing any good. If anything, it seems to be making things worse. Oh well, it's only life. What am I saying??!! http://www.presidentialufo.com/franklin-d-roosevelt/60-fdrs-secretary-of-state-and-the-alien-bodies-1939


    Last edited by orthodoxymoron on Sat Dec 03, 2011 9:30 pm; edited 13 times in total

    Floyd

    Posts: 4103
    Join date: 2010-04-16

    Re: Archangelic Queens of Heaven and the United States of the Solar System

    Post  Floyd on Fri Nov 25, 2011 1:08 pm

    Listen to a bit of Purple or The Snow Goose by Camel and all will be fine.

    orthodoxymoron

    Posts: 5088
    Join date: 2010-09-28

    Re: Archangelic Queens of Heaven and the United States of the Solar System

    Post  orthodoxymoron on Fri Nov 25, 2011 1:25 pm

    Thank-you Floyd. I'd walk at least a mile to listen to this. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ZTVnCyDoQlQ Consider the deep meaning in this cartoon-video! http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VeNxh5t5dHg Please agonize over ethics. Ethics are central. Should a religious service be a call to moral seriousness? What would Dr. Fritz Guy say? Is the sanctuary central? What would Dr. Erwin R. Gane say? What are the soteriological implications of the human nature of Jesus Christ? What would Gillian Ford say? Is the sanctuary service a theological milestone or a historical necessity? What would Dr. Desmond Ford say? Is the substitutionary atonement ethical? What would George Bernard Shaw say? Is it time to move on? What would Dr. Robert H. Schuller say? We need to have a crystal-clear and rock-solid ethical standard. We need to apply this standard historically and in modernity, in an unflinching manner, to all creatures, great and small, including gods and goddesses. Is 'just following orders' a valid moral defense? Does might make right? At what point does a leader not have to practice what they preach? Should a leader ever be 'above the law'? What is the 'Law of God'? Should God Obey the 'Law of God'? What does 'Thou Shalt Not Kill', 'Thou Shalt Not Steal', and 'Remember the Sabbath-Day to Keep it Holy' really mean? Did Jesus command humanity to keep the 'Ten Commandments'? What about ALL of the Old Testament Commandments? What did Jesus actually command humanity to think and do? What about Papal Encyclicals? Does Excathedra equal Infallible? What would Hans Kung say? Just for the record, I desire a higher moral standard, which is neither arbitrary or legalistic in nature. What would Karl Menninger and Joseph Fletcher say? Is being a 'goofy goober' an original and unpardonable sin? Is orthodoxymoron a 'goofy goober'? Are you a 'goofy goober'? What would orthodoxymoron say?

    Goofy Goobers Unite! The Goofy Goobers Will Inherit the Earth!
    Don't Look Now SpongeBob, But There's a Ring Around Uranus!



    I like the Bill and Kerry interviews, regardless of how much, or how little, bullshit they contain. They force me to think in unconventional ways. I'm currently trying to become a Pseudo-Egyptologist, and I'm learning one more time, how little I know about most things. The crux of my confusion is related to placing God and Heaven within this Solar System, rather than seeking a Distant God and Heaven. My new view requires a helluva lot of human responsibility (even if that is an oxymoron). What Would a Genuine Solar System Heaven Look Like? What Lifeforms Might It Include? What Would the Governmental System Look Like? What Would the Dominant Religious System Be Like? What Would God Do? What Would We Do? What if God is One of Us? What if God is a Draconian Reptilian? What if God is a Committee? What if God is a Black Woman? (similar to Anna in 'V', or Ash-Anna in Charge of the Ash-Tar Command?) What if God is a lot like the spiritual-leader (Mo'at as the Tsahik) of the Navi in 'Avatar'? Once again, don't take anything I say too seriously. This continues to be intended as a mental and spiritual exercise. What if All of Us Are Deluded? Fantasy should be firmly based upon reality, IMHO. I love historical fiction. Come to think of it, I need to read some more Howard Fast novels, such as 'The Immigrants'. What if most of us are Immigrants from Sirius, at least on the soul-level? I will continue to imagine a fully-realized United States of the Solar System and Anglo-Catholic Church. I will continue to imagine working as an Observer-Consultant to all of the above, with 100 square-foot subsurface office-apartments in Washington D.C., the City of London, the Vatican, and the Crater Copernicus. I will continue to hypothesize the implications and ramifications of a Human Solar System in the Context of a Draconian Reptilian Universe. What if we are a Renegade Faction of Draconian Reptilians Who Are Engaging in Forbidden Genetics and Governance Experiments? I will continue to imagine dealing with Humans and Draconians on a daily basis, in connection with Solar System Governance. I will continue to oscillate between 'No Sweat' and 'Oh $hit' (Sam Huston Institute of Technology) as I contemplate a Brave New World in a Brave New Universe. Notice how many powerful women in art and cinema are dressed in red, as women in scarlett??!! What Would Scarlett O'hara Say?? Frankly My Dear, I Don't Give a Damn.



    I just want to continue to make it clear that I simply wish for things to work out well for the human race in this solar system. I am not in bed with anyone (other than my dog). Having said that, what do you think about this? http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=CsrPt-enplw&feature=related I am undecided, but I think that the whole Reich and Nazi phenomenon is a very revealing window to look through. I hesitate to comment much on this sort of thing because of the racial, political, and religious land-mines. What if we are primarily dealing with Drac v Drac at the Galactic level, and One Faction of Jews v Another Faction of Jews at the Solar System level? I have zero evidence or proof, but it was just something I thought of. Kabbalist and Ashkenazi are two interesting words, which I know very little about, but which might be very important historically and presently. The hidden factional conflicts within the solar system scare the hell out of me, and that's without knowing much of what's really going on. Again, I simply wish for things to work out well for all concerned, but when everything important is a dark and dirty secret, it's hard to make rational judgments about much of anything of much importance. Ancient Sirius, Babylon, Egypt, Greece, and Rome might hold the keys to understanding and resolving a lot of this. I continue to have no animosity toward anyone, and I will attempt to maintain neutrality, no matter what type of skeletons come tumbling out of the confessionals. I keep thinking about that 'asteroid vision' of mine, involving the reincarnations of Osiris, Isis, Horus, and Set in 1939. Werner Von Braun spoke to Carol Rosin about an asteroid threat. Interesting. I seriously can't take much more of this. I feel as if I am in a Fourth-Dimensional War-Zone. I seem to be living in a 24/7 Sci-Fi Nightmare. This leads me to believe that 'waking people up' could be a HUGE mistake if it isn't done properly. My idealistic ideas within this thread might be a HUGE disaster if they were not implemented properly. Beware of set-ups, wherein a New Solar System might be instituted to deliberately precipitate a Solar System Final Jihad. I kid you not. Beware of poison pills and scuttling in absentia. I don't think the next couple of decades are going to be pleasant. This purgatory could very easily become a hell for the rest of the twenty-first century. My target date for a successfully implemented and sustainable United States of the Solar System is 2112, and that might be optimistic. Simply surviving until then might be a realistic goal. Here is some vintage Robert Morningsky from 1996, along with some of Alex Collier's 1994-96 interviews and lectures. This isn't necessarily an endorsement, but I think these videos contain important information and concepts. Read between the lines, and think freely while listening. Once again, I like to listen to material which is at least five years old, to avoid being swayed by the latest disaster scenario or conspiracy theory. I am trying to be much less emotional, and a lot more cold and calculating (in a good way). Please listen VERY closely to the following lectures:

    Robert Morningsky
    1. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=oO9IrA76CE8&feature=related
    2. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RQ4trbMGX4M&feature=related
    3. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VxFzH3goUsc&feature=related

    Alex Collier
    1. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=eDeW12Vv4TA
    2. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ZegXpXm4bug&feature=related
    3. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=oDZ2BWXqzCg&feature=related
    4. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=CV1mrkMWpeg

    Don't stop thinking about the hypothetical Osiris, Isis, Horus, and Set Factions of an Orion-Sirius-Egyptian-Roman Empire. Would a Responsibility-Based United States of the Solar System have to contain the best aspects of all of the above, and have a highly ethical and somewhat harsh nature? Would Responsible-Freedom need to be enforced with a titanium-fist? Unethical and cruel governance is a horrible thing, but indecisive and soft governance might be exponentially worse.
    Some opponents of the New World Order seem to wish to bypass a Representative Republic, and go directly to Direct Democracy, but wouldn't this be Mob-Rule, which would quickly lead to Anarchy and ultimately to Tyranny? Go to Jail? Does humanity know what the hell it really wants? I'm not sure what I really want, and that scares me. We say we want freedom, but are we prepared to accept the responsibility which must accompany freedom? I tend to doubt it. I have been mysteriously told 'You Can't Rule Yourselves' and that self-governance would not be a good idea, 'Maybe Later'. I have been told that 'The Most Intelligent Life on Earth is Not Human'. Is there some truth to this? I have been ominously warned regarding human-freedom and global-unity. The extermination of the human race has been repeatedly hinted at. I am presently terrified by the Galactic Powers That Be and by the Human Race. We might be in a No-Win Situation. All Options Might Be Bad. I will continue to be a Combination of Incurable Optimism and Unyielding Despair in my Pursuit of Responsible Freedom. Here I Stand Upon This Rock.

    I just received a couple of bits of supporting evidence for one of my theories, and I'm even more sad than usual because of this. It's regarding someone I talked with at the beginning of this year, but who I no longer converse with, and not by my choice. I have no idea what they are doing presently, but I worry -- a lot. Anyway, consider the following very carefully:

    1. The Hypothetical Osiris-Isis-Horus-Set Factions of an Orion-Sirius-Egyptian-Roman Empire.
    2. The City of London, Vatican City, Washington D.C., and the Crater Copernicus.
    3. A Responsibility-Based United States of the Solar System.
    4. Kabbalists, Nazis, Masons, Jesuits, and Dracs!
    5. The Papacy, the Monarchy, and the Alphabet Agencies.
    Note: Take the Following Four Items with a Sea of Salt.
    6. A Possible Osiris and Lord Rothschild Equivalency.
    7. A Possible Isis and Anna (in 'V') Equivalency.
    8. A Possible Horus and Pope Pius XII Equivalency.
    9. A Possible Set and Adolph Hitler Equivalency.
    10. The '1928 Book of Common Prayer' in Latin and English as an 'Anglo-Catholic Book of Common Prayer'.
    11. 'The Desire of Ages' by Ellen White.
    12. 'The Federalist Papers'.
    13. The Music of J.S. Bach.
    14. 'Jesus: Last of the Pharaohs' by Ralph Ellis.
    15. 'The Jesuits' by Malachi Martin.

    I don't know why I typed this list, but studying it might help you to better understand this thread. This is not a comprehensive list, and it was quite spontaneous. I don't intend this thread as a 'City on a Hill', but rather as a provocative study-guide to make YOU arrive at valid solutions. I don't necessarily approve of everything I have posted, and some of it is admittedly over the edge, but it is designed to produce certain thoughts and reactions in those who study my words of wit. My life is not a reflection of my idealism, but rather a reflection of the negative and destructive effects of reflection, as a particularly bad case of latter-day luddite paralysis of analysis. (LDLPA) I'm mad, but I really do have a method. Again, I'm really sad, and I just can't stop thinking about the dark-side of this world, solar-system, and universe. I feel as though I am being sucked into a spiritual black hole. I talked to a couple of people about some of my ideas over the weekend, and I felt very guilty for doing so. Perhaps there really is something to the practice of giving people what they want, and telling them what they want to hear. The truth is so overrated.


    Last edited by orthodoxymoron on Tue Nov 29, 2011 9:11 pm; edited 1 time in total

    orthodoxymoron

    Posts: 5088
    Join date: 2010-09-28

    Re: Archangelic Queens of Heaven and the United States of the Solar System

    Post  orthodoxymoron on Mon Nov 28, 2011 9:23 pm

    Here is a closer look a Earth's Moon. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Moon

    The Moon is Earth's only known natural satellite,[nb 4][6] and the fifth largest satellite in the Solar System. It is the largest natural satellite of a planet in the Solar System relative to the size of its primary, having a quarter the diameter of Earth and 1⁄81 its mass.[nb 5] The Moon is the second densest satellite after Io, a satellite of Jupiter. It is in synchronous rotation with Earth, always showing the same face; the near side is marked with dark volcanic maria among the bright ancient crustal highlands and prominent impact craters. It is the brightest object in the sky after the Sun, although its surface is actually very dark, with a similar reflectance to coal. Its prominence in the sky and its regular cycle of phases have since ancient times made the Moon an important cultural influence on language, calendars, art and mythology. The Moon's gravitational influence produces the ocean tides and the minute lengthening of the day. The Moon's current orbital distance, about thirty times the diameter of the Earth, causes it to appear almost the same size in the sky as the Sun, allowing it to cover the Sun nearly precisely in total solar eclipses.

    The Moon is the only celestial body on which humans have landed. While the Soviet Union's Luna programme was the first to reach the Moon with unmanned spacecraft in 1959, the United States' NASA Apollo program achieved the only manned missions to date, beginning with the first manned lunar orbiting mission by Apollo 8 in 1968, and six manned lunar landings between 1969 and 1972—the first being Apollo 11. These missions returned over 380 kg of lunar rocks, which have been used to develop a detailed geological understanding of the Moon's origins (it is thought to have formed some 4.5 billion years ago in a giant impact event involving Earth), the formation of its internal structure, and its subsequent history.

    After the Apollo 17 mission in 1972, the Moon has been visited only by unmanned spacecraft, notably by the final Soviet Lunokhod rover. Since 2004, Japan, China, India, the United States, and the European Space Agency have each sent lunar orbiters. These spacecraft have contributed to confirming the discovery of lunar water ice in permanently shadowed craters at the poles and bound into the lunar regolith. Future manned missions to the Moon have been planned, including government as well as privately funded efforts. The Moon remains, under the Outer Space Treaty, free to all nations to explore for peaceful purposes.

    The English proper name for Earth's natural satellite is "the Moon".[7][8] The noun moon derives from moone (around 1380), which developed from mone (1135), which derives from Old English mōna (dating from before 725), which, like all Germanic language cognates, ultimately stems from Proto-Germanic *mǣnōn.[9]

    The principal modern English adjective pertaining to the Moon is lunar, derived from the Latin Luna. Another less common adjective is selenic, derived from the Ancient Greek Selene (Σελήνη), from which the prefix "seleno-" (as in selenography) is derived.[10]

    Several mechanisms have been proposed for the Moon's formation 4.527 ± 0.010 billion years ago,[nb 6] some 30–50 million years after the origin of the Solar System.[11] These include the fission of the Moon from the Earth's crust through centrifugal forces,[12] which would require too great an initial spin of the Earth,[13] the gravitational capture of a pre-formed Moon,[14] which would require an unfeasibly extended atmosphere of the Earth to dissipate the energy of the passing Moon,[13] and the co-formation of the Earth and the Moon together in the primordial accretion disk, which does not explain the depletion of metallic iron in the Moon.[13] These hypotheses also cannot account for the high angular momentum of the Earth–Moon system.[15]

    The prevailing hypothesis today is that the Earth–Moon system formed as a result of a giant impact: a Mars-sized body hit the nearly formed proto-Earth, blasting material into orbit around the proto-Earth, which accreted to form the Moon.[16] Giant impacts are thought to have been common in the early Solar System. Computer simulations modelling a giant impact are consistent with measurements of the angular momentum of the Earth–Moon system, and the small size of the lunar core; they also show that most of the Moon came from the impactor, not from the proto-Earth.[17] However, meteorites show that other inner Solar System bodies such as Mars and Vesta have very different oxygen and tungsten isotopic compositions to the Earth, while the Earth and Moon have near-identical isotopic compositions. Post-impact mixing of the vaporized material between the forming Earth and Moon could have equalized their isotopic compositions,[18] although this is debated.[19]

    The large amount of energy released in the giant impact event and the subsequent reaccretion of material in Earth orbit would have melted the outer shell of the Earth, forming a magma ocean.[20][21] The newly formed Moon would also have had its own lunar magma ocean; estimates for its depth range from about 500 km to the entire radius of the Moon.[20]

    Internal structure of the MoonChemical composition of the lunar surface regolith (derived from crustal rocks)[22] Compound Formula Composition (wt %)
    Maria Highlands
    silica SiO2 45.4% 45.5%
    alumina Al2O3 14.9% 24.0%
    lime CaO 11.8% 15.9%
    iron(II) oxide FeO 14.1% 5.9%
    magnesia MgO 9.2% 7.5%
    titanium dioxide TiO2 3.9% 0.6%
    sodium oxide Na2O 0.6% 0.6%
    Total 99.9% 100.0%

    The Moon is a differentiated body: it has a geochemically distinct crust, mantle, and core. The Moon has a solid iron-rich inner core with a radius of 240 kilometers and a fluid outer core primarily made of liquid iron with a radius of roughly 300 kilometers. Around the core is a partially molten boundary layer with a radius of about 500 kilometers.[23] This structure is thought to have developed through the fractional crystallization of a global magma ocean shortly after the Moon's formation 4.5 billion years ago.[24] Crystallization of this magma ocean would have created a mafic mantle from the precipitation and sinking of the minerals olivine, clinopyroxene, and orthopyroxene; after about three-quarters of the magma ocean had crystallised, lower-density plagioclase minerals could form and float into a crust on top.[25] The final liquids to crystallise would have been initially sandwiched between the crust and mantle, with a high abundance of incompatible and heat-producing elements.[1] Consistent with this, geochemical mapping from orbit shows the crust is mostly anorthosite,[5] and moon rock samples of the flood lavas erupted on the surface from partial melting in the mantle confirm the mafic mantle composition, which is more iron rich than that of Earth.[1] Geophysical techniques suggest that the crust is on average ~50 km thick.[1]

    The Moon is the second densest satellite in the Solar System after Io.[26] However, the inner core of the Moon is small, with a radius of about 350 km or less;[1] this is only ~20% the size of the Moon, in contrast to the ~50% of most other terrestrial bodies. Its composition is not well constrained, but it is probably metallic iron alloyed with a small amount of sulphur and nickel; analyses of the Moon's time-variable rotation indicate that it is at least partly molten.[27]

    The topography of the Moon has been measured with laser altimetry and stereo image analysis.[29] The most visible topographic feature is the giant far side South Pole – Aitken basin, some 2,240 km in diameter, the largest crater on the Moon and the largest known crater in the Solar System.[30][31] At 13 km deep, its floor is the lowest elevation on the Moon.[30][32] The highest elevations are found just to its north-east, and it has been suggested that this area might have been thickened by the oblique formation impact of South Pole – Aitken.[33] Other large impact basins, such as Imbrium, Serenitatis, Crisium, Smythii, and Orientale, also possess regionally low elevations and elevated rims.[30] The lunar far side is on average about 1.9 km higher than the near side.[1]

    The dark and relatively featureless lunar plains which can clearly be seen with the naked eye are called maria (Latin for "seas"; singular mare), since they were believed by ancient astronomers to be filled with water.[34] They are now known to be vast solidified pools of ancient basaltic lava. While similar to terrestrial basalts, the mare basalts have much higher abundances of iron and are completely lacking in minerals altered by water.[35][36] The majority of these lavas erupted or flowed into the depressions associated with impact basins. Several geologic provinces containing shield volcanoes and volcanic domes are found within the near side maria.[37]

    Maria are found almost exclusively on the near side of the Moon, covering 31% of the surface on the near side,[38] compared with a few scattered patches on the far side covering only 2%.[39] This is thought to be due to a concentration of heat-producing elements under the crust on the near side, seen on geochemical maps obtained by Lunar Prospector's gamma-ray spectrometer, which would have caused the underlying mantle to heat up, partially melt, rise to the surface and erupt.[25][40][41] Most of the Moon's mare basalts erupted during the Imbrian period, 3.0–3.5 billion years ago, although some radiometrically dated samples are as old as 4.2 billion years,[42] and the youngest eruptions, dated by crater counting, appear to have been only 1.2 billion years ago.[43]

    The lighter-coloured regions of the Moon are called terrae, or more commonly highlands, since they are higher than most maria. They have been radiometrically dated as forming 4.4 billion years ago, and may represent plagioclase cumulates of the lunar magma ocean.[42][43] In contrast to the Earth, no major lunar mountains are believed to have formed as a result of tectonic events.[44]

    The other major geologic process that has affected the Moon's surface is impact cratering,[45] with craters formed when asteroids and comets collide with the lunar surface. There are estimated to be roughly 300,000 craters wider than 1 km on the Moon's near side alone.[46] Some of these are named for scholars, scientists, artists and explorers.[47] The lunar geologic timescale is based on the most prominent impact events, including Nectaris, Imbrium, and Orientale, structures characterized by multiple rings of uplifted material, typically hundreds to thousands of kilometres in diameter and associated with a broad apron of ejecta deposits that form a regional stratigraphic horizon.[48] The lack of an atmosphere, weather and recent geological processes mean that many of these craters are well-preserved. While only a few multi-ring basins have been definitively dated, they are useful for assigning relative ages. Since impact craters accumulate at a nearly constant rate, counting the number of craters per unit area can be used to estimate the age of the surface.[48] The radiometric ages of impact-melted rocks collected during the Apollo missions cluster between 3.8 and 4.1 billion years old: this has been used to propose a Late Heavy Bombardment of impacts.[49]

    Blanketed on top of the Moon's crust is a highly comminuted (broken into ever smaller particles) and impact gardened surface layer called regolith, formed by impact processes. The finer regolith, the lunar soil of silicon dioxide glass, has a texture like snow and smell like spent gunpowder.[50] The regolith of older surfaces is generally thicker than for younger surfaces: it varies in thickness from 10–20 m in the highlands and 3–5 m in the maria.[51] Beneath the finely comminuted regolith layer is the megaregolith, a layer of highly fractured bedrock many kilometres thick.[52]

    Liquid water cannot persist on the lunar surface. When exposed to solar radiation, water quickly decomposes through a process known as photodissociation and is lost to space. However since the 1960s, scientists have hypothesized that water ice may be deposited by impacting comets or possibly produced by the reaction of oxygen-rich lunar rocks, and hydrogen from solar wind, leaving traces of water which could possibly survive in cold, permanently shadowed craters at either pole on the Moon.[53][54] Computer simulations suggest that up to 14,000 km2 of the surface may be in permanent shadow.[55] The presence of usable quantities of water on the Moon is an important factor in rendering lunar habitation as a cost-effective plan; the alternative of transporting water from Earth would be prohibitively expensive.[56]

    In years since, signatures of water have been found to exist on the lunar surface.[57] In 1994, the bistatic radar experiment located on the Clementine spacecraft, indicated the existence of small, frozen pockets of water close to the surface. However, later radar observations by Arecibo, suggest these findings may rather be rocks ejected from young impact craters.[58] In 1998, the neutron spectrometer located on the Lunar Prospector spacecraft, indicated that high concentrations of hydrogen are present in the first meter of depth in the regolith near the polar regions.[59] In 2008, an analysis of volcanic lava beads, brought back to Earth aboard Apollo 15, showed small amounts of water to exist in the interior of the beads.[60]

    The 2008, Chandrayaan-1 spacecraft has since confirmed the existence of surface water ice, using the on-board Moon Mineralogy Mapper. The spectrometer observed absorption lines common to hydroxyl, in reflected sunlight, providing evidence of large quantities of water ice, on the lunar surface. The spacecraft showed that concentrations may possibly be as high as 1,000 ppm.[61] In 2009, LCROSS sent a 2300 kg impactor into a permanently shadowed polar crater, and detected at least 100 kg of water in a plume of ejected material.[62][63] Another examination of the LCROSS data showed the amount of detected water, to be closer to 155 kilograms (± 12 kg).[64]

    In May 2011, Erik Hauri et al. reported[65] 615–1410 ppm water in melt inclusions in lunar sample 74220, the famous high-titanium "orange glass soil" of volcanic origin collected during the Apollo 17 mission in 1972. The inclusions were formed during explosive eruptions on the moon approximately 3.7 billion years ago.

    This concentration is comparable with that of magma in Earth's upper mantle. While of considerable selenological interest, this announcement affords little comfort to would-be lunar colonists. The sample originated many kilometers below the surface, and the inclusions are so difficult to access that it took 39 years to find them with a state-of-the-art ion microprobe instrument.

    The gravitational field of the Moon has been measured through tracking the Doppler shift of radio signals emitted by orbiting spacecraft. The main lunar gravity features are mascons, large positive gravitational anomalies associated with some of the giant impact basins, partly caused by the dense mare basaltic lava flows that fill these basins.[66] These anomalies greatly influence the orbit of spacecraft about the Moon. There are some puzzles: lava flows by themselves cannot explain all of the gravitational signature, and some mascons exist that are not linked to mare volcanism.[67]

    The Moon has an external magnetic field of the order of one to a hundred nanoteslas, less than one-hundredth that of the Earth. It does not currently have a global dipolar magnetic field, as would be generated by a liquid metal core geodynamo, and only has crustal magnetization, probably acquired early in lunar history when a geodynamo was still operating.[68][69] Alternatively, some of the remnant magnetization may be from transient magnetic fields generated during large impact events, through the expansion of an impact-generated plasma cloud in the presence of an ambient magnetic field—this is supported by the apparent location of the largest crustal magnetizations near the antipodes of the giant impact basins.[70]

    The Moon has an atmosphere so tenuous as to be nearly vacuum, with a total mass of less than 10 metric tons.[71] The surface pressure of this small mass is around 3 × 10−15 atm (0.3 nPa); it varies with the lunar day. Its sources include outgassing and sputtering, the release of atoms from the bombardment of lunar soil by solar wind ions.[5][72] Elements that have been detected include sodium and potassium, produced by sputtering, which are also found in the atmospheres of Mercury and Io; helium-4 from the solar wind; and argon-40, radon-222, and polonium-210, outgassed after their creation by radioactive decay within the crust and mantle.[73][74] The absence of such neutral species (atoms or molecules) as oxygen, nitrogen, carbon, hydrogen and magnesium, which are present in the regolith, is not understood.[73] Water vapour has been detected by Chandrayaan-1 and found to vary with latitude, with a maximum at ~60–70 degrees; it is possibly generated from the sublimation of water ice in the regolith.[75] These gases can either return into the regolith due to the Moon's gravity, or be lost to space: either through solar radiation pressure, or if they are ionised, by being swept away by the solar wind's magnetic field.[73]

    The Moon's axial tilt is only 1.54°, much less than the 23.44° of the Earth. Because of this, the Moon's solar illumination varies much less with season, and topographical details play a crucial role in seasonal effects.[76] From images taken by Clementine in 1994, it appears that four mountainous regions on the rim of Peary crater at the Moon's north pole remain illuminated for the entire lunar day, creating peaks of eternal light. No such regions exist at the south pole. Similarly, there are places that remain in permanent shadow at the bottoms of many polar craters,[55] and these dark craters are extremely cold: Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter measured the lowest summer temperatures in craters at the southern pole at 35 K (−238 °C),[77] and just 26 K close to the winter solstice in north polar Hermite Crater. This is the coldest temperature in the Solar System ever measured by a spacecraft, colder even than the surface of Pluto.[76]

    The Moon makes a complete orbit around the Earth with respect to the fixed stars about once every 27.3 days[nb 7] (its sidereal period). However, since the Earth is moving in its orbit about the Sun at the same time, it takes slightly longer for the Moon to show the same phase to Earth, which is about 29.5 days[nb 8] (its synodic period).[38] Unlike most satellites of other planets, the Moon orbits nearer the ecliptic plane than to the planet's equatorial plane. The Moon's orbit is subtly perturbed by the Sun and Earth in many small, complex and interacting ways. For example, the plane of the Moon's orbital motion gradually rotates, which affects other aspects of lunar motion. These follow-on effects are mathematically described by Cassini's laws.[78]

    The Moon is exceptionally large relative to the Earth: a quarter the diameter of the planet and 1/81 its mass.[38] It is the second largest moon orbiting an object in the solar system relative to the size of its planet. Charon is larger relative to the dwarf planet Pluto, at slightly more than 1/9 (11.6%) of Pluto's mass.[80]

    However, the Earth and Moon are still considered a planet–satellite system, rather than a double-planet system, as their barycentre, the common centre of mass, is located 1,700 km (about a quarter of the Earth's radius) beneath the surface of the Earth.[81]

    The Moon is in synchronous rotation: it rotates about its axis in about the same time it takes to orbit the Earth. This results in it nearly always keeping the same face turned towards the Earth. The Moon used to rotate at a faster rate, but early in its history, its rotation slowed and became tidally locked in this orientation as a result of frictional effects associated with tidal deformations caused by the Earth.[82] The side of the Moon that faces Earth is called the near side, and the opposite side the far side. The far side is often called the "dark side," but in fact, it is illuminated as often as the near side: once per lunar day, during the new Moon phase we observe on Earth when the near side is dark.[83]

    The Moon has an exceptionally low albedo, giving it a similar reflectance to coal. Despite this, it is the second brightest object in the sky after the Sun.[38][nb 9] This is partly due to the brightness enhancement of the opposition effect; at quarter phase, the Moon is only one-tenth as bright, rather than half as bright, as at full Moon.[84] Additionally, colour constancy in the visual system recalibrates the relations between the colours of an object and its surroundings, and since the surrounding sky is comparatively dark, the sunlit Moon is perceived as a bright object. The edges of the full Moon seem as bright as the centre, with no limb darkening, due to the reflective properties of lunar soil, which reflects more light back towards the Sun than in other directions. The Moon does appear larger when close to the horizon, but this is a purely psychological effect, known as the Moon illusion, first described in the 7th century BC.[85] The full Moon subtends an arc of about 0.52° (on average) in the sky, roughly the same apparent size as the Sun (see eclipses).

    The highest altitude of the Moon in the sky varies: while it has nearly the same limit as the Sun, it alters with the lunar phase and with the season of the year, with the full Moon highest during winter. The 18.6-year nodes cycle also has an influence: when the ascending node of the lunar orbit is in the vernal equinox, the lunar declination can go as far as 28° each month. This means the Moon can go overhead at latitudes up to 28° from the equator, instead of only 18°. The orientation of the Moon's crescent also depends on the latitude of the observation site: close to the equator, an observer can see a smile-shaped crescent Moon.[86]

    The distance between the moon and the Earth varies from around 356,400 km to 406,700 km at the extreme perigees (closest) and apogees (farthest). On 19 March 2011, it was closer to the earth while at full phase than it has been since 1993.[87] Reported as a "super moon", this closest point coincides within an hour of a full moon, and it thus appeared 30 percent brighter, and 14 percent larger than when at its greatest distance.[88][89][90]

    There has been historical controversy over whether features on the Moon's surface change over time. Today, many of these claims are thought to be illusory, resulting from observation under different lighting conditions, poor astronomical seeing, or inadequate drawings. However, outgassing does occasionally occur, and could be responsible for a minor percentage of the reported lunar transient phenomena. Recently, it has been suggested that a roughly 3 km diameter region of the lunar surface was modified by a gas release event about a million years ago.[91][92] The Moon's appearance, like that of the Sun, can be affected by Earth's atmosphere: common effects are a 22° halo ring formed when the Moon's light is refracted through the ice crystals of high cirrostratus cloud, and smaller coronal rings when the Moon is seen through thin clouds.[93]

    The tides on the Earth are mostly generated by the gradient in intensity of the Moon's gravitational pull from one side of the Earth to the other, the tidal forces. This forms two tidal bulges on the Earth, which are most clearly seen in elevated sea level as ocean tides.[94] Since the Earth spins about 27 times faster than the Moon moves around it, the bulges are dragged along with the Earth's surface faster than the Moon moves, rotating around the Earth once a day as it spins on its axis.[94] The ocean tides are magnified by other effects: frictional coupling of water to Earth's rotation through the ocean floors, the inertia of water's movement, ocean basins that get shallower near land, and oscillations between different ocean basins.[95] The gravitational attraction of the Sun on the Earth's oceans is almost half that of the Moon, and their gravitational interplay is responsible for spring and neap tides.[94]

    Gravitational coupling between the Moon and the bulge nearest the Moon acts as a torque on the Earth's rotation, draining angular momentum and rotational kinetic energy from the Earth's spin.[94][96] In turn, angular momentum is added to the Moon's orbit, accelerating it, which lifts the Moon into a higher orbit with a longer period. As a result, the distance between the Earth and Moon is increasing, and the Earth's spin slowing down.[96] Measurements from lunar ranging experiments with laser reflectors left during the Apollo missions have found that the Moon's distance to the Earth increases by 38 mm per year[97] (though this is only 0.10 ppb/year of the radius of the Moon's orbit). Atomic clocks also show that the Earth's day lengthens by about 15 microseconds every year,[98] slowly increasing the rate at which UTC is adjusted by leap seconds. Left to run its course, this tidal drag would continue until the spin of the Earth and the orbital period of the Moon matched. However, the Sun will become a red giant long before that, engulfing the Earth.[99][100]

    The lunar surface also experiences tides of amplitude ~10 cm over 27 days, with two components: a fixed one due to the Earth, as they are in synchronous rotation, and a varying component from the Sun.[96] The Earth-induced component arises from libration, a result of the Moon's orbital eccentricity; if the Moon's orbit were perfectly circular, there would only be solar tides.[96] Libration also changes the angle from which the Moon is seen, allowing about 59% of its surface to be seen from the Earth (but only half at any instant).[38] The cumulative effects of stress built up by these tidal forces produces moonquakes. Moonquakes are much less common and weaker than earthquakes, although they can last for up to an hour – a significantly longer time than terrestrial earthquakes – because of the absence of water to damp out the seismic vibrations. The existence of moonquakes was an unexpected discovery from seismometers placed on the Moon by Apollo astronauts from 1969 through 1972.[101]

    From the Earth, the Moon and Sun appear the same size. From a satellite in an Earth-trailing orbit, the Moon may appear smaller than the Sun.Eclipses can only occur when the Sun, Earth, and Moon are all in a straight line (termed "syzygy"). Solar eclipses occur near a new Moon, when the Moon is between the Sun and Earth. In contrast, lunar eclipses occur near a full Moon, when the Earth is between the Sun and Moon. The apparent size of the Moon is roughly the same as that of the Sun, with both being viewed at close to one-half a degree wide. The Sun is much larger than the Moon but it is the precise vastly greater distance that coincidentally gives it the same apparent size as the much closer and much smaller Moon from the perspective of the Earth. The variations in apparent size, due to the non-circular orbits, are nearly the same as well, though occurring in different cycles. This makes possible both total (with the Moon appearing larger than the Sun) and annular (with the Moon appearing smaller than the Sun) solar eclipses.[103] In a total eclipse, the Moon completely covers the disc of the Sun and the solar corona becomes visible to the naked eye. Since the distance between the Moon and the Earth is very slowly increasing over time,[94] the angular diameter of the Moon is decreasing. This means that hundreds of millions of years ago the Moon would always completely cover the Sun on solar eclipses, and no annular eclipses were possible. Likewise, about 600 million years from now (if the angular diameter of the Sun does not change), the Moon will no longer cover the Sun completely, and only annular eclipses will occur.[104]

    Because the Moon's orbit around the Earth is inclined by about 5° to the orbit of the Earth around the Sun, eclipses do not occur at every full and new Moon. For an eclipse to occur, the Moon must be near the intersection of the two orbital planes.[104] The periodicity and recurrence of eclipses of the Sun by the Moon, and of the Moon by the Earth, is described by the saros cycle, which has a period of approximately 18 years.[105]

    As the Moon is continuously blocking our view of a half-degree-wide circular area of the sky,[nb 10][106] the related phenomenon of occultation occurs when a bright star or planet passes behind the Moon and is occulted: hidden from view. In this way, a solar eclipse is an occultation of the Sun. Because the Moon is comparatively close to the Earth, occultations of individual stars are not visible everywhere on the planet, nor at the same time. Because of the precession of the lunar orbit, each year different stars are occulted.[107]

    Understanding of the Moon's cycles was an early development of astronomy: by the 5th century BC, Babylonian astronomers had recorded the 18-year Saros cycle of lunar eclipses,[108] and Indian astronomers had described the Moon’s monthly elongation.[109] The Chinese astronomer Shi Shen (fl. 4th century BC) gave instructions for predicting solar and lunar eclipses.[110] Later, the physical form of the Moon and the cause of moonlight became understood. The ancient Greek philosopher Anaxagoras (d. 428 BC) reasoned that the Sun and Moon were both giant spherical rocks, and that the latter reflected the light of the former.[111][112] Although the Chinese of the Han Dynasty believed the Moon to be energy equated to qi, their 'radiating influence' theory also recognized that the light of the Moon was merely a reflection of the Sun, and Jing Fang (78–37 BC) noted the sphericity of the Moon.[113] In 499 AD, the Indian astronomer Aryabhata mentioned in his Aryabhatiya that reflected sunlight is the cause of the shining of the Moon.[114] The astronomer and physicist Alhazen (965–1039) found that sunlight was not reflected from the Moon like a mirror, but that light was emitted from every part of the Moon's sunlit surface in all directions.[115] Shen Kuo (1031–1095) of the Song Dynasty created an allegory equating the waxing and waning of the Moon to a round ball of reflective silver that, when doused with white powder and viewed from the side, would appear to be a crescent.[116]

    In Aristotle's (384–322 BC) description of the universe, the Moon marked the boundary between the spheres of the mutable elements (earth, water, air and fire), and the imperishable stars of aether, an influential philosophy that would dominate for centuries.[117] However, in the 2nd century BC, Seleucus of Seleucia correctly theorized that tides were due to the attraction of the Moon, and that their height depends on the Moon's position relative to the Sun.[118] In the same century, Aristarchus computed the size and distance of the Moon from Earth, obtaining a value of about twenty times the Earth radius for the distance. These figures were greatly improved by Ptolemy (90–168 AD): his values of a mean distance of 59 times the Earth's radius and a diameter of 0.292 Earth diameters were close to the correct values of about 60 and 0.273 respectively.[119] Archimedes (287–212 BC) invented a planetarium calculating motions of the Moon and the known planets.[120]

    During the Middle Ages, before the invention of the telescope, the Moon was increasingly recognised as a sphere, though many believed that it was "perfectly smooth".[121] In 1609, Galileo Galilei drew one of the first telescopic drawings of the Moon in his book Sidereus Nuncius and noted that it was not smooth but had mountains and craters. Telescopic mapping of the Moon followed: later in the 17th century, the efforts of Giovanni Battista Riccioli and Francesco Maria Grimaldi led to the system of naming of lunar features in use today. The more exact 1834-6 Mappa Selenographica of Wilhelm Beer and Johann Heinrich Mädler, and their associated 1837 book Der Mond, the first trigonometrically accurate study of lunar features, included the heights of more than a thousand mountains, and introduced the study of the Moon at accuracies possible in earthly geography.[122] Lunar craters, first noted by Galileo, were thought to be volcanic until the 1870s proposal of Richard Proctor that they were formed by collisions.[38] This view gained support in 1892 from the experimentation of geologist Grove Karl Gilbert, and from comparative studies from 1920 to the 1940s,[123] leading to the development of lunar stratigraphy, which by the 1950s was becoming a new and growing branch of astrogeology.[38]

    Lunokhod 1 (lit. moonwalker), the first successful space rover.The Cold War-inspired Space Race between the Soviet Union and the U.S. led to an acceleration of interest in exploration of the Moon. Once launchers had the necessary capabilities, these nations sent unmanned probes on both flyby and impact/lander missions. Spacecraft from the Soviet Union's Luna program were the first to accomplish a number of goals: following three unnamed, failed missions in 1958,[124] the first man-made object to escape Earth's gravity and pass near the Moon was Luna 1; the first man-made object to impact the lunar surface was Luna 2, and the first photographs of the normally occluded far side of the Moon were made by Luna 3, all in 1959.

    The first spacecraft to perform a successful lunar soft landing was Luna 9 and the first unmanned vehicle to orbit the Moon was Luna 10, both in 1966.[38] Rock and soil samples were brought back to Earth by three Luna sample return missions (Luna 16 in 1970, Luna 20 in 1972, and Luna 24 in 1976), which returned 0.3 kg total.[125] Two pioneering robotic rovers landed on the Moon in 1970 and 1973 as a part of Soviet Lunokhod programme.

    Astronaut Buzz Aldrin photographed by Neil Armstrong during the first Moon landing on 20 July 1969American lunar exploration began with robotic missions aimed at developing understanding of the lunar surface for an eventual manned landing: the Jet Propulsion Laboratory's Surveyor program landed its first spacecraft four months after Luna 9. NASA's manned Apollo program was developed in parallel; after a series of unmanned and manned tests of the Apollo spacecraft in Earth orbit, and spurred on by a potential Soviet lunar flight, in 1968 Apollo 8 made the first crewed mission to lunar orbit. The subsequent landing of the first humans on the Moon in 1969 is seen by many as the culmination of the Space Race.[126] Neil Armstrong became the first person to walk on the Moon as the commander of the American mission Apollo 11 by first setting foot on the Moon at 02:56 UTC on 21 July 1969.[127] The Apollo missions 11 to 17 (except Apollo 13, which aborted its planned lunar landing) returned 382 kg of lunar rock and soil in 2,196 separate samples.[128] The American Moon landing and return was enabled by considerable technological advances in the early 1960s, in domains such as ablation chemistry, software engineering and atmospheric re-entry technology, and by highly competent management of the enormous technical undertaking.[129][130]

    Scientific instrument packages were installed on the lunar surface during all the Apollo missions. Long-lived instrument stations, including heat flow probes, seismometers, and magnetometers, were installed at the Apollo 12, 14, 15, 16, and 17 landing sites. Direct transmission of data to Earth concluded in late 1977 due to budgetary considerations,[131][132] but as the stations' lunar laser ranging corner-cube retroreflector arrays are passive instruments, they are still being used. Ranging to the stations is routinely performed from earth-based stations with an accuracy of a few centimetres, and data from this experiment are being used to place constraints on the size of the lunar core.[133]

    Post-Apollo and Luna, many more countries have become involved in direct exploration of the Moon. In 1990, Japan became the third country to place a spacecraft into lunar orbit with its Hiten spacecraft. The spacecraft released a smaller probe, Hagoromo, in lunar orbit, but the transmitter failed, preventing further scientific use of the mission.[134] In 1994, the U.S. sent the joint Defense Department/NASA spacecraft Clementine to lunar orbit. This mission obtained the first near-global topographic map of the Moon, and the first global multispectral images of the lunar surface.[135] This was followed in 1998 by the Lunar Prospector mission, whose instruments indicated the presence of excess hydrogen at the lunar poles, which is likely to have been caused by the presence of water ice in the upper few meters of the regolith within permanently shadowed craters.[136]

    The European spacecraft SMART-1, the second ion-propelled spacecraft, was in lunar orbit from 15 November 2004 until its lunar impact on 3 September 2006, and made the first detailed survey of chemical elements on the lunar surface.[137] China has expressed ambitious plans for exploring the Moon, and successfully orbited its first spacecraft, Chang'e-1, from 5 November 2007 until its controlled lunar impact on 1 March 2008.[138] In its sixteen-month mission, it obtained a full image map of the Moon. Between 4 October 2007 and 10 June 2009, the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency's Kaguya (Selene) mission, a lunar orbiter fitted with a high-definition video camera, and two small radio-transmitter satellites, obtained lunar geophysics data and took the first high-definition movies from beyond Earth orbit.[139][140] India's first lunar mission, Chandrayaan I, orbited from 8 November 2008 until loss of contact on 27 August 2009, creating a high resolution chemical, mineralogical and photo-geological map of the lunar surface, and confirming the presence of water molecules in lunar soil.[141] The Indian Space Research Organisation plans to launch Chandrayaan II in 2013, which is slated to include a Russian robotic lunar rover.[142][143] The U.S. co-launched the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) and the LCROSS impactor and follow-up observation orbiter on 18 June 2009; LCROSS completed its mission by making a planned and widely observed impact in the crater Cabeus on 9 October 2009,[144] while LRO is currently in operation, obtaining precise lunar altimetry and high-resolution imagery.

    Other upcoming lunar missions include Russia's Luna-Glob: an unmanned lander, set of seismometers, and an orbiter based on its Martian Phobos-Grunt mission, which is slated to launch in 2012.[145][146] Privately funded lunar exploration has been promoted by the Google Lunar X Prize, announced 13 September 2007, which offers US$20 million to anyone who can land a robotic rover on the Moon and meet other specified criteria.[147]

    NASA began to plan to resume manned missions following the call by U.S. President George W. Bush on 14 January 2004 for a manned mission to the Moon by 2019 and the construction of a lunar base by 2024.[148] The Constellation program was funded and construction and testing begun on a manned spacecraft and launch vehicle,[149] and design studies for a lunar base.[150] However, that program has been cancelled in favour of a manned asteroid landing by 2025 and a manned Mars orbit by 2035.[151] India has also expressed its hope to send a manned mission to the Moon by 2020.[152]

    For many years, the Moon has been recognized as an excellent site for telescopes.[153] It is relatively nearby; astronomical seeing is not a concern; certain craters near the poles are permanently dark and cold, and thus especially useful for infrared telescopes; and radio telescopes on the far side would be shielded from the radio chatter of Earth.[154] The lunar soil, although it poses a problem for any moving parts of telescopes, can be mixed with carbon nanotubes and epoxies in the construction of mirrors up to 50 meters in diameter.[155] A lunar zenith telescope can be made cheaply with ionic liquid.[156]

    Although Luna landers scattered pennants of the Soviet Union on the Moon, and U.S. flags were symbolically planted at their landing sites by the Apollo astronauts, no nation currently claims ownership of any part of the Moon's surface.[157] Russia and the U.S. are party to the 1967 Outer Space Treaty,[158] which defines the Moon and all outer space as the "province of all mankind".[157] This treaty also restricts the use of the Moon to peaceful purposes, explicitly banning military installations and weapons of mass destruction.[159] The 1979 Moon Agreement was created to restrict the exploitation of the Moon's resources by any single nation, but it has not been signed by any of the space-faring nations.[160] While several individuals have made claims to the Moon in whole or in part, none of these are considered credible.[161][162][163]

    The Moon's regular phases make it a very convenient timepiece, and the periods of its waxing and waning form the basis of many of the oldest calendars. Tally sticks, notched bones dating as far back as 20–30,000 years ago, are believed by some to mark the phases of the Moon.[164][165][166] The ~30-day month is an approximation of the lunar cycle. The English noun month and its cognates in other Germanic languages stem from Proto-Germanic *mǣnṓth-, which is connected to the above mentioned Proto-Germanic *mǣnōn, indicating the usage of a lunar calendar among the Germanic peoples (Germanic calendar) prior to the adoption of a solar calendar.[167] The same Indo-European root as moon led, via Latin, to measure and menstrual, words which echo the Moon's importance to many ancient cultures in measuring time (see Latin mensis and Ancient Greek μήνας (mēnas), meaning "month").[168][169]

    A crescent Moon and a star are a common symbol of Islam, appearing in numerous flags including those of Turkey and Pakistan.The Moon has been the subject of many works of art and literature and the inspiration for countless others. It is a motif in the visual arts, the performing arts, poetry, prose and music. A 5,000-year-old rock carving at Knowth, Ireland, may represent the Moon, which would be the earliest depiction discovered.[170] The contrast between the brighter highlands and darker maria create the patterns seen by different cultures as the Man in the Moon, the rabbit and the buffalo, among others. In many prehistoric and ancient cultures, the Moon was personified as a deity or other supernatural phenomenon, and astrological views of the Moon continue to be propagated today.

    The Moon has a long association with insanity and irrationality; the words lunacy and loony are derived from the Latin name for the Moon, Luna. Philosophers such as Aristotle and Pliny the Elder argued that the full Moon induced insanity in susceptible individuals, believing that the brain, which is mostly water, must be affected by the Moon and its power over the tides, but the Moon's gravity is too slight to affect any single person.[171] Even today, people insist that admissions to psychiatric hospitals, traffic accidents, homicides or suicides increase during a full Moon, although there is no scientific evidence to support such claims.[171]


    Last edited by orthodoxymoron on Mon Nov 28, 2011 10:44 pm; edited 1 time in total

    orthodoxymoron

    Posts: 5088
    Join date: 2010-09-28

    Re: Archangelic Queens of Heaven and the United States of the Solar System

    Post  orthodoxymoron on Mon Nov 28, 2011 9:37 pm

    Here's more about the Moon. A lot more.

    ^ The maximum value is given based on scaling of the brightness from the value of −12.74 given for an equator to Moon-centre distance of 378 000 km in the NASA factsheet reference to the minimum Earth-Moon distance given there, after the latter is corrected for the Earth's equatorial radius of 6 378 km, giving 350 600 km. The minimum value (for a distant new Moon) is based on a similar scaling using the maximum Earth-Moon distance of 407 000 km (given in the factsheet) and by calculating the brightness of the earthshine onto such a new Moon. The brightness of the earthshine is [ Earth albedo × (Earth radius / Radius of Moon's orbit)2 ] relative to the direct solar illumination that occurs for a full Moon. (Earth albedo = 0.367; Earth radius = (polar radius × equatorial radius)½ = 6 367 km.)
    ^ The range of angular size values given are based on simple scaling of the following values given in the fact sheet reference: at an Earth-equator to Moon-centre distance of 378 000 km, the angular size is 1896 arcseconds. The same fact sheet gives extreme Earth-Moon distances of 407 000 km and 357 000 km. For the maximum angular size, the minimum distance has to be corrected for the Earth's equatorial radius of 6 378 km, giving 350 600 km.
    ^ Lucey et al. (2006) give 107 particles cm−3 by day and 105 particles cm−3 by night. Along with equatorial surface temperatures of 390 K by day and 100 K by night, the ideal gas law yields the pressures given in the infobox (rounded to the nearest order of magnitude; 10−7 Pa by day and 10−10 Pa by night.
    ^ There are a number of near-Earth asteroids including 3753 Cruithne that are co-orbital with Earth: their orbits bring them close to Earth for periods of time but then alter in the long term (Morais et al, 2002). These are quasi-satellites and not true moons. For more information, see Other moons of Earth.
    ^ Charon is proportionally larger in comparison to Pluto, but Pluto has been reclassified as a dwarf planet
    ^ This age is calculated from isotope dating of lunar rocks.
    ^ More accurately, the Moon's mean sidereal period (fixed star to fixed star) is 27.321661 days (27d 07h 43m 11.5s), and its mean tropical orbital period (from equinox to equinox) is 27.321582 days (27d 07h 43m 04.7s) (Explanatory Supplement to the Astronomical Ephemeris, 1961, at p.107).
    ^ More accurately, the Moon's mean synodic period (between mean solar conjunctions) is 29.530589 days (29d 12h 44m 02.9s) (Explanatory Supplement to the Astronomical Ephemeris, 1961, at p.107).
    ^ The Sun's apparent magnitude is −26.7, and the full Moon's apparent magnitude is −12.7.
    ^ On average, the Moon covers an area of 0.21078 square degrees on the night sky.
    Footnotes
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    Bibliography
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    Further readingThe Moon. Discovery 2008. BBC World Service.
    Bussey, B.; Spudis, P.D. (2004). The Clementine Atlas of the Moon. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-81528-2.
    Cain, Fraser. "Where does the Moon Come From?". Universe Today. http://www.astronomycast.com/astronomy/episode-17-where-does-the-moon-come-from/. Retrieved 1 April 2008. (podcast and transcript)
    Jolliff, B.; Wieczorek, M.; Shearer, C.; Neal, C. (eds.) (2006). "New views of the Moon". Rev. Mineral. Geochem. (Chantilly, Virginia: Min. Soc. Amer.) 60 (1): 721. doi:10.2138/rmg.2006.60.0. ISBN 0939950723. http://www.minsocam.org/msa/RIM/Rim60.html. Retrieved 12 April 2007.
    Jones, E.M. (2006). "Apollo Lunar Surface Journal". NASA. http://www.hq.nasa.gov/office/pao/History/alsj/. Retrieved 12 April 2007.
    "Exploring the Moon". Lunar and Planetary Institute. http://www.lpi.usra.edu/expmoon/. Retrieved 12 April 2007.
    Mackenzie, Dana (2003). The Big Splat, or How Our Moon Came to Be. Hoboken, New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons, Inc. ISBN 0-471-15057-6.
    Moore, P. (2001). On the Moon. Tucson, Arizona: Sterling Publishing Co.. ISBN 0-304-35469-4.
    "Moon Articles". Planetary Science Research Discoveries. http://www.psrd.hawaii.edu/Archive/Archive-Moon.html.
    Spudis, P.D. (1996). The Once and Future Moon. Smithsonian Institution Press. ISBN 1-56098-634-4.
    Taylor, S.R. (1992). Solar system evolution. Cambridge Univ. Press. p. 307. ISBN 0-521-37212-7.
    Teague, K. (2006). "The Project Apollo Archive". http://www.apolloarchive.com/apollo_archive.html. Retrieved 12 April 2007.
    Wilhelms, D.E. (1987). "Geologic History of the Moon". U.S. Geological Survey Professional paper 1348. http://ser.sese.asu.edu/GHM/. Retrieved 12 April 2007.
    Wilhelms, D.E. (1993). To a Rocky Moon: A Geologist's History of Lunar Exploration. Tucson, Arizona: University of Arizona Press. ISBN 0-8165-1065-2. http://www.lpi.usra.edu/publications/books/rockyMoon/. Retrieved 10 March 2009.


    Last edited by orthodoxymoron on Mon Nov 28, 2011 10:53 pm; edited 1 time in total

    orthodoxymoron

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    Re: Archangelic Queens of Heaven and the United States of the Solar System

    Post  orthodoxymoron on Mon Nov 28, 2011 9:49 pm

    I have joked about having 100 square-foot office-apartments beneath the City of London, Vatican City, Washington D.C., and the Crater Copernicus -- in connection with being some sort of a self-styled Solar System Governance Consultant. Is this a productive way to think about this Solar System? Which one of these four locations should be central? Would the Moon-View provide an Above-It-All Perspective which might result in a superior World-View? What if one studied the Moon on both an exoteric and esoteric level, as a methodology of studying the entire Solar System, wherein the Moon would absorb 90% of one's attention, with the rest of the Solar System being viewed with Peripheral Vision? As I imagine standing on the Moon, I feel as though I am cornered by Vengeful and Hateful Draconian Reptilians and Rebellious and Irresponsible Human Beings. Anyway, why don't we begin with a closer look at the Crater Copernicus? http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Copernicus_(lunar_crater)

    Copernicus is a prominent lunar impact crater named after the astronomer Nicolaus Copernicus, located in eastern Oceanus Procellarum. It is estimated to be about 800 million years old, and typifies craters that formed during the Copernican period in that it has a prominent ray system.

    Copernicus is visible using binoculars, and is located slightly northwest of the center of the Moon's Earth-facing hemisphere. South of the crater is the Mare Insularum, and to the south-south west is the crater Reinhold. North of Copernicus are the Montes Carpatus, which lie at the south edge of Mare Imbrium. West of Copernicus is a group of dispersed lunar hills. Due to its relative youth, the crater has remained in a relatively pristine shape since it formed.

    The circular rim has a discernible hexagonal form, with a terraced inner wall and a 30 km wide, sloping rampart that descends nearly a kilometer to the surrounding mare. There are three distinct terraces visible, and arc-shaped landslides due to slumping of the inner wall as the crater debris subsided.

    Most likely due to its recent formation, the crater floor has not been flooded by lava. The terrain along the bottom is hilly in the southern half while the north is relatively smooth. The central peaks consist of three isolated mountainous rises climbing as high as 1.2 km above the floor. These peaks are separated from each other by valleys, and they form a rough line along an east-west axis. Infrared observations of these peaks during the 1980s determined that they were primarily composed of the mafic form of olivine.

    "Picture of the Century" – oblique view of the interior of Copernicus from Lunar Orbiter 2. NASA photo.Based on high-resolution images from Lunar Orbiter 5, Terry W. Offield of the U.S. Geological Survey described the crater as having,

    “ ...a hummocky crater rim, numerous large slump blocks on the crater wall, and a complex of central peaks. Sets of parallel fractures, aligned with the lunar structure grid, formed after the crater wall took its present form, but before the smoothest floor materials were emplaced. The smooth floor materials show a swirling pattern of cracks like those seen on terrestrial lava flows. These materials are associated with numerous hills that have summit craters and are probably small volcanoes. Several low places on the rim and wall are partly filled by what appears to be ponded volcanic material, or possibly fluidized impact debris.”

    The crater rays spread as far as 800 kilometers across the surrounding mare, overlying rays from the craters Aristarchus and Kepler. The rays are less distinct than the long, linear rays extending from Tycho, instead forming a nebulous pattern with plumy markings. In multiple locations the rays lie at glancing angles, instead of forming a true radial dispersal. An extensive pattern of smaller secondary craters can also be observed surrounding Copernicus, a detail that was depicted in a map by Giovanni Cassini in 1680. Some of these secondary craters form sinuous chains in the ejecta.

    Copernicus was given its name by Giovanni Riccioli, an Italian Jesuit who in conformity with church doctrine publicly opposed the heliocentric system revived by Nicolaus Copernicus. Riccioli is quoted as having "flung Copernicus into the Ocean of Storms" (Oceanus Procellarum); nevertheless in naming one of the most prominent craters on the Moon for the man, he may have indicated his true intent. Later the crater was nicknamed "the Monarch(ruler)of the Moon" by Thomas Gwyn Elger.

    In 1966 the crater was photographed from an oblique angle by Lunar Orbiter 2 as one of 12 "housekeeping" pictures that were taken to advance the roll of film between possible astronaut landing sites being surveyed. At the time this detailed image of the lunar surface was termed by NASA Scientist Martin Swetnick and subsequently quoted by Time magazine as "one of the great pictures of the century."[1]

    The Apollo 12 mission landed north of Copernicus on mare basalts of Oceanus Procellarum that were believed to have been in the path of one of the crater's rays, and scientists hoped cosmic ray exposure ages of soil samples would help constrain the crater age. The results were inconclusive, but not inconsistent with the estimated 800 million year age of crater formation. Copernicus itself was a possible landing site for the canceled Apollo 20 mission.

    By convention these features are identified on lunar maps by placing the letter on the side of the crater mid-point that is closest to Copernicus.

    Copernicus Latitude Longitude Diameter
    A 9.5° N 18.9° W 3 km
    B 7.5° N 22.4° W 7 km
    C 7.1° N 15.4° W 6 km
    D 12.2° N 24.7° W 5 km
    E 6.4° N 22.7° W 4 km
    F 5.9° N 22.2° W 4 km
    G 5.9° N 21.5° W 4 km
    H 6.9° N 18.3° W 5 km
    J 10.1° N 23.9° W 6 km
    L 13.5° N 17.0° W 4 km
    N 6.9° N 23.3° W 7 km
    P 10.1° N 16.0° W 5 km
    R 8.1° N 16.8° W 3 km

    References^ "Space: A New Look at Copernicus". Time. 1966-12-09. http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,898477,00.html. Retrieved 2010-04-30.
    Pieters, C. M. (1982-01-01). "Copernicus crater central peak - Lunar mountain of unique composition". Science 215 (4528): 59–61. Bibcode 1982Sci...215...59P. doi:10.1126/science.215.4528.59. PMID 17790469.
    Cortright, Edgar M. (1968). "A Closer Look at Copernicus". SP-168 Exploring Space with a Camera. NASA Langley Research Center. pp. 116. http://history.nasa.gov/SP-168/section2b.htm#116.
    Wood, Chuck (2006-10-14). "Superb Copernicus". Lunar Photo of the Day. http://www.lpod.org/?m=20061014. Retrieved 2006-10-16.
    Andersson, L. E.; Whitaker, E. A., (1982). NASA Catalogue of Lunar Nomenclature. NASA RP-1097.
    Blue, Jennifer (July 25, 2007). "Gazetteer of Planetary Nomenclature". USGS. http://planetarynames.wr.usgs.gov/. Retrieved 2007-08-05.
    Bussey, B.; Spudis, P. (2004). The Clementine Atlas of the Moon. New York: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-81528-2.
    Cocks, Elijah E.; Cocks, Josiah C. (1995). Who's Who on the Moon: A Biographical Dictionary of Lunar Nomenclature. Tudor Publishers. ISBN 0-936389-27-3.
    McDowell, Jonathan (July 15, 2007). "Lunar Nomenclature". Jonathan's Space Report. http://host.planet4589.org/astro/lunar/. Retrieved 2007-10-24.
    Menzel, D. H.; Minnaert, M.; Levin, B.; Dollfus, A.; Bell, B. (1971). "Report on Lunar Nomenclature by the Working Group of Commission 17 of the IAU". Space Science Reviews 12 (2): 136–186. Bibcode 1971SSRv...12..136M. doi:10.1007/BF00171763. edit
    Moore, Patrick (2001). On the Moon. Sterling Publishing Co. ISBN 0-304-35469-4.
    Price, Fred W. (1988). The Moon Observer's Handbook. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-33500-0.
    Rükl, Antonín (1990). Atlas of the Moon. Kalmbach Books. ISBN 0-913135-17-8.
    Webb, Rev. T. W. (1962). Celestial Objects for Common Telescopes (6th revision ed.). Dover. ISBN 0-486-20917-2.
    Whitaker, Ewen A. (1999). Mapping and Naming the Moon. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-62248-4.
    Wlasuk, Peter T. (2000). Observing the Moon. Springer. ISBN 1-85233-193-3.
    Bugiolacchi et al., (2011) An in-depth look at the lunar crater Copernicus: Exposed mineralogy by high-resolution near-infrared spectroscopy

    Mercuriel
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    Re: Archangelic Queens of Heaven and the United States of the Solar System

    Post  Mercuriel on Tue Nov 29, 2011 9:38 am





    Oooyeah - I got more where that came from...

    Heh heh


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    Carol
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    Re: Archangelic Queens of Heaven and the United States of the Solar System

    Post  Carol on Tue Nov 29, 2011 11:12 am

    Oxy, you've outdone yourself. Double Thumbs Up


    Merc, you're such a tease. Malletzky If people had any idea who you really are their jaws would drop. Luke

    I would love to see that "more" you have along with that video on the space command.


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