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    Global Volcano Watch

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    Re: Global Volcano Watch

    Post  Carol on Sun Dec 29, 2013 12:02 pm


    Magma rising: rapid inflation, and strong tremors shake El Hierro
    December 27, 2013 – CANARY ISLANDS – Although earthquakes have largely ceased for the moment, the island experiences ongoing rapid inflation and harmonic tremor, both signs that an eruption could be imminent. The inflation in the SE part near El Pinar and La Restinga has reached almost 10 cm in just a few days by now. Instead of new earthquakes, harmonic tremor (steady low-frequency ground vibration) has appeared 2 days ago and since then been gradually increasing. Both observations, as well as some single long-period earthquakes in the past days, are indicators of magma moving into the system and pressurizing it. This means that the scenario of a new eruption has become more and more likely. It is impossible to say whether and when a new eruption will occur, but it could happen quickly any time. It would probably begin with a series of stronger earthquakes to open up a conduit. Based on the inflation and earthquake patterns, the most likely area would be near the 2011 vent near La Restinga, perhaps even on land. In this case, La Restinga would be the village most at risk. The previously detected very high Radon gas emission values also suggest the presence of new magma and pose a health risk particularly in closed low-lying rooms of buildings especially in southern El Hierro. –Volcano Discovery


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    Re: Global Volcano Watch

    Post  Carol on Tue Jan 07, 2014 3:04 pm


    More violent: Indonesia’s Sinabung Volcano erupts 77 times in 24 hours
    January 6, 2014 – INDONESIA – A volcano on Indonesia’s Sumatra Island erupted at least 77 times over the weekend, sending clouds of potentially deadly superheated gas barreling down the mountain and forcing the evacuation of more villages in the highly populated area. Mount Sinabung has displaced nearly 20,000 people from their homes since sporadic eruptions began in September. Experts have placed it under the highest alert status among the 127 active volcanoes in Indonesia, which is home to more active volcanoes than any other country and has some of the world’s most lethal volcanic activity. More people were evacuated Friday from villages in the path of hot clouds of ash and gases that on Saturday blew more than five kilometers (three miles) down the mountainside, said Sutopo Purwo Nugroho, spokesman for the national disaster-mitigation agency. ount Sinabung spews lava as seen from the village of Suka Ndebi in Karo, North Sumatra, Indonesia, on Sunday. That was the farthest such clouds,—also called pyroclastic flows,—had traveled to date. Experts say the flows, which move at high speeds and scorch everything in their path, are among the most dangerous volcanic events. When another of Indonesia’s volcanoes, Mount Merapi, erupted in 2010, almost 2,000 kilometers to the southeast on the archipelago country’s main island of Java—dozens of people were killed by superheated gases that tore into their villages far below the summit. The disaster agency said Sunday that Sinabung had erupted 77 times in the previous 24 hours, sending fine particles of ash up to 4,000 meters into the air. That marks a major increase in the frequency of eruptions, although the maximum height of the plumes has fallen to roughly half the peak level last week. Winds have been pushing the ash to the east and southeast, away from Indonesia’s third-largest city, Medan, home to more than two million people.

    Sinabung is an imposing massif rising to nearly 2,500 meters above the surrounding countryside, much of which is farmland in a district home to hundreds of thousands of people. It lies about 50 kilometers to the southwest of Medan, the provincial capital of North Sumatra, and 13 kilometers northwest of the district seat of Kabanjahe. The district numbers some 350,000 people. Mr. Nugroho, the disaster agency spokesman, said the evacuation zone, which has stood at a five-kilometer radius around the volcano’s peak, has been extended to seven kilometers in the southeast, where volcanic activity is greatest. Residents of more than two dozen villages have been living in temporary shelters outside that zone, some for months. Many of their homes are caked with ash and their small farms left unattended. If the no-go zone were the increase to 10 kilometers, the number of displaced persons would reach nearly 60,000, Mr. Nugroho said. The disaster agency cannot predict the mountain’s activity but has extended a period of extra caution to Jan. 18, he said. Mr. Nugroho said that the volcano is continuing to produce magma, or molten rock pushed up from deep within the earth, which is also the swelling the size of a lava dome near the peak.

    Partial collapses of the dome last week coincided with a series of lava flows down the mountain. In 2010, Sinabung came to life after lying largely dormant for hundreds of years, forcing the evacuation of around 12,000 villagers. Government scientists lack a deep understanding of the volcano’s characteristics, given its lengthy period of inactivity before then. Sinabung’s activity so far hasn’t risen to the level of Merapi, where pyroclastic flows extended for more than 15 kilometers at the height of activity in 2010. The evacuation zone extended to a radius of 20 kilometers around the peak. Those eruptions, over a series of months, killed more than 300 people and displaced hundreds of thousands. Mr. Nugroho cautioned that eruptions on Sinabung could occur even after the release of lava flows, as they did in the case of Merapi. Indonesia sits on the fault lines of the Pacific Ring of Fire, which experiences frequent earthquakes and volcanic activity. The Mount Toba super-eruption around 74,000 years ago in Sumatra created what is today the world’s largest volcanic lake. The eruption in 1883 of Mount Krakatau, which lies west of Java in the Sunda Strait separating the island from Sumatra, triggered a tsunami that killed tens of thousands of people, with the ash from the eruption lowering global temperatures for months. -WSJ



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    Re: Global Volcano Watch

    Post  Carol on Wed Jan 15, 2014 9:47 am


    Sinabung volcano (Sumatra) – eruption increases again, large pyroclastic flows
    January 14, 2014 – INDONESIA - After a few days of deceiving calm, the eruption of the volcano intensified again today and produced the so-far largest pyroclastic flows, reaching probably more than 5-6 km in length, and associated ash plumes that rose to approx. 25,000 ft (8 km) altitude. It seems that the previous dome which grew at the summit of Sinabung, collapsed a few days ago, leaving a large crater breached on the side where the earlier pyroclastic flows had gone down. The temporary absence of a lava dome in the past days led to the cessation of pyroclastic flows. Now, the new dome has again surpassed the boundary of the breach and sheds pyroclastic flows into the deep ravine below. On the other hand, a strong increase in SO2 emissions and hybrid earthquakes indicate that a larger new batch of new magma has risen, which also explains the new more vigorous activity. –Volcano Discovery


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    Re: Global Volcano Watch

    Post  Carol on Wed Jan 15, 2014 9:49 am


    El Salvadoran officials on alert for Chaparrastique Volcano activity
    January 14, 2014 – EL SAVADOR – The alert status remains today in El Salvador by seismic activity of the Chaparrastique volcano, except in the eastern department of San Miguel, where the volcano of 2130 meters above sea level is located. According to the latest special report from Ministry of Environment and Natural Resources (MARN), as vibrations persist and gases column is visible, the possibility of another eruption is not ruled out in the coming days or weeks through the central crater or their flanks. Environment officials are urging people not to approach the volcano crater and abide by the instructions issued by the General Department of Civil Protection. MARN explained that the vibration levels and emission have shown changes but remain. Comments that include images captured by Web cameras installed northwest, southwest and south of the volcano indicate that the emission of gases from the crater have remained without significant changes and have reached a height of 150 meters. The Chaparrastique had an eruption on 29 December that forced the country’s authorities to evacuate nearby populations. The performance of Civil Protection, in coordination with the various state agencies prevented loss of life and serious injuries. –Prensa Latin


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    Re: Global Volcano Watch

    Post  Carol on Thu Jan 30, 2014 9:47 pm


    Volcanic activity in Guatemala prompts series of evacuations
    January 30, 2014 – GUATEMALA - A volcanic eruption last week in the Central American nation of Guatemala is forcing nearby evacuations and has closed the area off to tourism according to reports from AP sources in the area. The volcano is located just south of Guatemala City. The Pacaya volcano has begun a constant lava flow down one side of the mountain that has caused the removal of some local residents. There have also been intermittent explosions and clouds of ash being tossed into the air. The activity of the volcano is described as “mildly explosive and effusive (Strombolian activity, lava fountaining, lava flows from the summit crater),” according to Volcano Discovery. “Near continuously active the least during the past centuries.” An update to the site on Jan. 12 noted the proximity of lava flows moving closer to inhabited areas. “These fissures feed two large (and possibly one smaller third) lava flows that have reached lengths of 3-5 km length and are several hundred meters wide at their fronts (up to 800 m on the western side),” Volcano Discovery reported. “The lava flows have burned extensive areas of farmland and woods and are close to some villages. In the meantime, moderate to violent strombolian activity continues at the summit.” The heaviest activity is occurring in the San Vicente Pacaya in the Department of Escuintla, where photographs show residents monitoring massive burning flows as well as firefighters in the region trying to contain fires that have been spawned as a result of the volcano’s activity. There have also been some recent activity on volcanoes in Alaska noted on the Aleutian Islands. However, since Jan. 2 no new activity has been observed and the USGS has reduced the alert level to Orange in that area. The Aleutian Islands are a very sparsely populated chain of islands in the northern state. –Latin Post



    Scientists find large magma chamber under Hawaii’s Kilauea volcano
    January 30, 2013 –HAWAII – Geologists say they’ve confirmed the existence of a previously unknown large, deep magma chamber below Hawaii’s Kilauea volcano. The discovery offers new insight into the largely unknown internal plumbing of volcanoes, scientists at the University of Miami’s Rosenstiel School of Marine & Atmospheric Science reported Wednesday. The finding at the world’s most active volcano is the first geophysical observation that large magma chambers exist in the deeper parts of a volcano system, they said. The scientists analyzed seismic waves moving through the volcano to understand the internal structure of the volcanic system, finding a lava chamber at least a mile in diameter and located at a depth of 5 miles to 6.8 miles. “It was known before that Kilauea had small, shallow magma chambers,” geologists and lead study author Guoqing Lin said. “This study is the first geophysical observation that large magma chambers exist in the deep oceanic crust below.” The magma reservoir below Kilauea is similar to those widely observed beneath volcanoes located at mid-ocean ridges, the researchers said. “Understanding these magma bodies are a high priority because of the hazard posed by the volcano,” said geophysics Professor Falk Amelung, the study co-author. “Kilauea volcano produces many small earthquakes and paying particular attention to new seismic activity near this body will help us to better understand where future lava eruptions will come from.” –Red Orbit


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    Re: Global Volcano Watch

    Post  Carol on Mon Feb 24, 2014 8:09 am


    Mount Kelud erupts in Indonesia, killing 3 – forcing the evacuation of 200,000
    February 14, 2014 – INDONESIA – A volcano eruption in Indonesia killed three people and forced tens of thousands more out of their homes, the disaster management agency said Friday. Two died from smoke inhalation while the third was hit by a collapsing wall. Officials had originally reported two deaths due to falling building debris. Mount Kelud in the eastern part of the main island Java has been spewing ash for at least two days high into the air, as a smoke plume has risen from out of its crater into the sky. The government raised its eruption alert to its highest level overnight, and authorities have ordered an evacuation of all residents in a 10-kilometer (6.2 miles) radius of the volcano in eastern Java. At the height of the crisis Friday, 100,000 people evacuated, but that number later dropped to more than 75,000. Seven airports closed due to volcanic ash, which filled the skies and can lead to jet engine problems. Lightning was seen striking the volcano’s peak as it spewed debris, according to National Disaster Mitigation Agency spokesman Sutopo Purwo Nugroho. The nation’s volcanology agency said other smaller eruptions could happen. Authorities urged people to stay outside the 10-kilometer radius. Pictures from the scene show large black plumes rising over Mount Kelud, raining pebbles and ash on the surrounding area. The military has been called in to help evacuate people from the area to nearby shelters. Mount Kelud last erupted in 2007, but it has recently ramped up activity in the past 10 days. In 1990, an eruption killed more than 30 people and injured hundreds. Indonesia is part of the vast “Pacific Ring of Fire,” an area of colliding continental plates where powerful earthquakes and volcanic eruptions often occur. -CNN





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    Re: Global Volcano Watch

    Post  Carol on Mon Feb 24, 2014 8:11 am


    Growing unrest: El Salvador’s San Miguel may be stirring for another eruption
    February 17, 2014 – EL SALVADOR – Warning signs of a possible new eruption of the volcano in the near future are becoming increasingly alarming. Accompanied by an ongoing earthquake swarm, tremor (as an indicator of internal pressure) continues to climb. Pulsating gas emissions reaching 50-400 m height above the crater have been seen recently. Sulfur dioxide (SO2) emissions remain high. Depending on wind direction and speed, air quality in downwind areas near the volcano often reaches unhealthy values. Since 27 Jan, a total of 109 earthquakes were detected by MARN under the north flank of the Chaparrastique volcano, with magnitudes ranging between 0.6 and 1.9. –Volcano Discovery


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    Re: Global Volcano Watch

    Post  Carol on Mon Feb 24, 2014 8:12 am


    [size=18.333332061767578]Phreatic explosions: locals warned of new eruptions from Peru’s Ubinas volcano[/size]
    February 17, 2014 – PERU – The volcano could be in the process of entering a new eruptive phase. Two small (likely phreatic) explosions occurred last Friday at 13:46 and 14:45 h local time (18:46 and 19:45 GMT), ejecting plumes of ash and steam rising approx. 1.5-2 km. A strong sulfur smell was noticed in up to 5 km distance. Ubinas, Peru’s most active volcano, had been showing increased signs of unrest since the beginning of the month. Episodes of tremor occurred frequently during 1-9 Feb, accompanied by intense fumarolic activity. Tremor decreased after 9 Feb, but a swarm of long-period earthquakes occurred with up to 80 quakes detected per day. n important increase in SO2 emission (500 tons/day on 7 Feb) was measured, which suggests the presence of new magma. In addition, INGEMMET detected 25-30 mm inflation of the southern flank, but notes that it is likely a sign of its structural instability, enhanced by the current seismic activity (as opposed to being a sign of magma pushing from inside). Authorities have distributed dust masks to people in the areas of Cancosani, Titi and Cangalle. –Volcano Discovery


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    Re: Global Volcano Watch

    Post  Carol on Mon Feb 24, 2014 8:15 am


    Mount Hood study suggests dormant volcanoes quickly become active
    February 18, 2014 – GEOLOGY – New research by UC Davis and Oregon State University may soon lead to new forecasts into how soon volcanoes are ready to erupt. Geologists from both schools, publishing a paper online in the journal Nature, have found that in order for an eruption to occur, molten rock under the volcano must be sufficiently mobile. The evidence comes from a study of Oregon’s 11,249-foot-high Mount Hood. The team found that the magma located roughly three miles beneath the surface of the volcanic mountain has been stored in near-solid conditions for thousands of years. However, they say that it takes just a significantly short period – perhaps as little as a few months – for said magma to liquefy and potentially lead to an eruption. Kari Cooper, lead author and an associate professor in the Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences at UC Davis, said that people typically believe there is a big reservoir of liquid magma under a volcano, but the evidence shows that this is not always true. The study team said that mobility of the magma depends on the amount of crystallization. When it is more than about 50 percent crystalline, it becomes immobile. Crystallization, in turn, depends on the temperature of the rock. If the temperature of the solid rock rises to more than 1,328 degrees F, which can happen when hot magma rises up from deeper within the Earth’s crust, an eruption may be imminent. It is exactly this that occurred in Mount Hood’s last two eruptions – 220 and 1,500 years ago, said USO geologist Adam Kent, coauthor of the paper. “If the temperature of the rock is too cold, the magma is like peanut butter in a refrigerator,” Kent said in a statement. “It just isn’t very mobile. For Mount Hood, the threshold seems to be about 750 degrees (C) – if it warms up just 50 to 75 degrees above that, it greatly increases the viscosity of the magma and makes it easier to mobilize.”

    Until this study surfaced, volcanologists have not known how common it is for magma to be crystalline compared to being mobile and eruptible. The new research shows that Mount Hood’s magma is mobile much less than 10 percent of the time. For the study, Cooper, Kent and their colleagues studied rocks ejected from Mount Hood’s previous eruptions. By analyzing the radioactive isotopes and the distribution of trace elements, the team was able to reconstruct the history of the rocks and the conditions they were exposed to before the volcano erupted. The results of their findings could make it much easier for volcanologists to assess when a volcano is ready to blow its top. If eruptible magma is indeed relatively rare, then when it does appear, the risks of an eruption are much higher, Cooper noted. If Mount Hood does become eruptible again, Kent said there is some good news. Past events have shown that the volcano’s eruptions are not particularly violent. Instead of exploding, the magma had oozed out of the peak in previous eruptions. A previous study by Kent and OSU postdoctoral researcher Alison Koleszar found that magma mixing is both a trigger for an eruption and a constraining factor on how violent the eruption will be. “What happens when they mix is what happens when you squeeze a tube of toothpaste in the middle,” said Kent. “A big glob kind of plops out the top, but in the case of Mount Hood – it doesn’t blow the mountain to pieces.” The research team hopes to apply the techniques used in studying Mount Hood with other, larger volcanoes to determine their crystalline behaviors. If the evidence holds true for other volcanoes, then it could lead to better eruption forecasting. –Red Orbit



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    Re: Global Volcano Watch

    Post  Carol on Thu Feb 27, 2014 6:59 pm


    Poás Volcano spews material 300 meters high after explosion inside crater
    February 2014 – COSTA RICA – The crater of Poas Volcano expelled material 300 meters into the air at noon on Tuesday. The phenomenon, called a phreatic explosion, occurred due to a reaction between magma and water at the southern border of the lake inside the volcano. However, this was not an eruption and the volcano did not spew lava. Instead, a column of steam, gas and other materials formed and spouted out the top of the volcano, confirmed the Volcanological and Seismological Observatory of Costa Rica (OVSICORI). María Martínez Cruz, a volcanology and geochemistry expert with OVSICORI, said the event can be considered “normal for the volcano’s activity, although explosion heights like the one recorded Tuesday are not that common.” This type of explosion, called phreatic, occurs when the volcano’s magma contacts water in the crater’s lagoon and evaporates quickly through fissures. That action results in an blast of steam, water, ash and small rocks. [The volcano] has been calm for several months. It’s only releasing a lot of gas. This is part of the natural phenomenon, throwing tall columns of gas into the air, steam, the colors of the [volcanic] lake,” said Juan Dobles, administrator of the Poás Volcano National Park. Currently there is no risk to visitors since most materials dissipate in the wind, Martínez added. Poás Volcano National Park is open from 8 a.m. to 3:30 p.m. every day, and visitors can walk to a lookout point to get a scenic view of the volcano. The Poás Volcano National Park is the second most visited in the country after Manuel Antonio National Park in the Pacific.

    Martínez, who is part of an expert group currently monitoring the activity at Poás, added that they have been monitoring the volcano closely since an increase in the crater’s temperature was detected in recent years. The increase could be an indicator of volcanic activity. Martínez explained that the average temperature of the Poás crater in the last 50 years has been 92 degrees Celsius (198 Fahrenheit), but in 2013 they recorded temperatures between 200-400 degrees Celsius (392-752 degrees Fahrenheit). “Today’s explosion reached 720 degrees Celsius (1,328 ºF), which is the second highest after those recorded between June-September 2011 when we recorded temperatures up to 890 degrees Celsius (1,634 degrees Fahrenheit),” she said. Poás also recorded activity in 2010 and in February last year, when other materials from phreatic explosions reached the visitors area. –Tico Times


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    Re: Global Volcano Watch

    Post  Carol on Thu Feb 27, 2014 7:01 pm


    Two small eruptions reported at Alaska’s Cleveland’s Volcano
    February 2014 – ALASKA – Researchers detected two small explosions at Cleveland Volcano on Monday afternoon and early Tuesday morning, according to the Alaska Volcano Observatory. The first occurred a little after 5 p.m. Monday and the second at 1:35 a.m. Tuesday. The AVO said the explosions were brief, and were detected by infrasound and lightning alarms. A small ash cloud — the presence of which was confirmed by satellite — was estimated to be drifting at an altitude of about 16,000 feet above sea level. “These explosions are typical of eruptive activity of Cleveland over the past few years,” reported AVO. “There may be a heightened chance of additional ash emissions in the coming weeks. Because these explosions were brief and there is no sign of ongoing eruption, Cleveland remains at Volcano Alert Level/Aviation Color Code YELLOW/ADVISORY.” The 5,676-foot peak [3], also known as Mount Cleveland, is in Alaska’s Aleutian Islands and has erupted numerous times in recent years. Its alert level was briefly raised to orange for a week in January, before being lowered to yellow again Jan. 10. -AD



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    Re: Global Volcano Watch

    Post  Carol on Thu Feb 27, 2014 7:02 pm


    New ash explosions reported at Indonesia’s Marapi Volcano
    February 2014 – INDONESIA - Another ash eruption occurred at the volcano this afternoon at 16:15 local time. According to local news quoting the local VSI volcano observatory spokesman, the eruption today was the largest in a series since the alert status had been raised on 3 August last year. Ash fell in a radius of 3 km where some villages are located. Also according to the article, the volcano has had a total of 57 recorded eruptions since January 2014. Since all of these have been small, and Indonesia is very used to small volcanic eruptions, they hardly make any news at all (while such an event at other volcanoes would). The alert status remains unchanged at 2 out of 4. People were recommended to avoid exposure to ash if possible and wear dust masks. –Volcano Discovery


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    Re: Global Volcano Watch

    Post  Carol on Wed Mar 05, 2014 10:55 am


    Guatemala’s Pacaya Volcano spews rock and ash
    March 2014 – GUATEMALA – Guatemala authorities say the Pacaya volcano near Guatemala City has shot plumes of ash and vapor 2.3 miles (3.7 kilometers) high, while spewing glowing-hot rock. The eruption early Sunday is the latest round of activity at the scenic volcano located just 30 miles (50 kms) south of Guatemala City. The ash plume was moving southwest and west, away from the capital. Pacaya is one of Guatemala’s most active and picturesque volcanoes. An eruption in January sent lava flowing down one side of the volcano, leading to evacuations. –ABC News


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    Re: Global Volcano Watch

    Post  bobhardee on Sat Mar 15, 2014 8:33 pm

    Posted on 3 15 2014 Event date 3 09 2014

    http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gghaHUCiLIs&list=FLTiL1q9YbrVam5nP2xzFTWQ
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    Re: Global Volcano Watch

    Post  Carol on Sat Apr 12, 2014 3:17 am


    Increased activity at Peru volcano – eruption warning issued for African volcano
    April 2014 – GEOLOGY – Residents have fled villages near Peru’s Ubinas volcano, which this week began spitting out white-hot chunks of rock, some as big as 30cm in diameter. Domingo Ramos, a scientist from Peru’s mining institute, said the volcano reawakened several days ago. The renewed activity led the government to announce a state of emergency in the Andean region of Moquegua, some 1200km south of Lima. The region is home to some 40 volcanoes, most of which, unlike Ubinas, are dormant. Officials plan to distribute food, face masks and goggles to help those upwind of the volcano cope with airborne ash. -SMH

    According to local news, a seismic crisis is under way at the volcano and the volcano observatory in Goma thinks that a new eruption in coming days or weeks is likely. “The eruption of Nyamulagira will have no impact on the famous volcano Nyiragongo, whose activity is in a normal state,” said Kaco Karume, member of the Volcanic Observatory of Goma (OVG). Nyamuragira (also spelled Nyamulagira) volcano is located 22 km north of Goma, the capital of North Kivu province. It erupts on average every 2 years. Its last eruption was in late 2011-early 2012. –Volcano Discovery


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    Re: Global Volcano Watch

    Post  Carol on Fri Apr 18, 2014 8:47 am

    http://dutchsinse.tatoott1009.com/4172014-nevada-volcanoes-rumbling-3-0m-event-strikes-lunar-crater-volcanic-complex/

    Back to back surface earthquake occurred in Nevada -- a hundred miles
    apart -- both at dormant volcanic locations.

    First, a 3.0M struck near the Lunar Craters volcanic complex.
    Occurring at 0km , recorded as a surface earthquake.

    http://dutchsinse.tatoott1009.com/wp-content/uploads/2014/04/nevada-volcano-earthquake2.jpg

    http://earthquake.usgs.gov/earthquakes/eventpage/nn00444070#summary

    Event Time

    2014-04-17 23:04:29 UTC

    2014-04-17 16:04:29 UTC-07:00 at epicenter

    2014-04-17 18:04:29 UTC-05:00 system time

    Location
    38.684°N 115.709°W depth=0.0km (0.0mi)

    ____

    This surface event literally means a shallow rupture in the crust has
    occurred, the earthquake happening actually at, or near the surface.

    In this case, the surface is already prone for movement at the Lunar
    Craters of Nevada -- a natural weak spot in the crust.

    Lunar Craters volcanic field 2255 m / 7,398 ft
    Nevada, USA , 38.25°N / -116.05°W
    Last Eruption: approximately 15,000 years ago

    http://dutchsinse.tatoott1009.com/wp-content/uploads/2014/04/craters-nevada.jpg
    http://www.volcanodiscovery.com/lunar_crater.html
    http://www.volcanodiscovery.com/lunar_crater.html

    The Lunar Crater volcanic field is a zone of vulcanism covering over
    300 km2 at the southern end of the Pancake Range in the Great Basin
    Desert, Nevada. It contains numerous cinder cones and lava flows,
    fissures, and, most visibly, the 150 m deep Lunar Crater, a 1050 m
    wide and nearly circular maar (explosion crater) believed to have
    formed about 15,000 years ago.
    Lunar Crater is one of Nevada's 6 National Natural Landmarks.
    Background:
    From Wood and Kienle, 1990, Volcanoes of North America: United States
    and Canada: Cambridge University Press, 354p., p.256-262, Contribution
    by John C. Dohrenwend (cited on CVO / USGS website (
    http://vulcan.wr.usgs.gov/Volcanoes/Nevada/description_nevada_volcanics.html#lunar_crater
    ) ):

    The Lunar Crater volcanic field, an apparent middle to late Pliocene
    and Pleistocene continuation of the Reveille Range volcanic field
    immediately to the southwest, is superposed across the
    25-million-year-old Lunar Lake caldera, a crudely circular topographic
    basin on the crest of the Pancake Range. The field contains
    approximately 95 late Pliocene and Pleistocene vents and at least 35
    associated lava flows contained within a northeast-trending zone, up
    to 10 kilometers wide and approximately 40 kilometers long, that
    extends obliquely across the flanks and crest of the range. Vents
    include cinder cones, elongate fissures, and at least two maars. Lunar
    Crater, a nearly circular maar, approximately 130 meters deep and
    1,050 meters wide, is the most distinctive feature of the field. A
    second maar, approximately 550 meters wide and 65 meters deep, occurs
    at the south end of a northeast-trending chain of coalesced cinder
    cones. Several other northeast-trending alignments of closely spaced
    and coalesced cinder cones characterize the field. Lava flows range up
    to 1.9 kilometers wide and 6.1 kilometers long with thicknesses from
    less than 3 meters to as much as 25 meters. Progressive degradation of
    the cones and flows is very similar to that displayed by other
    basaltic volcanic fields in the southwest Basin and Range (including
    the Cima, Crater Flat, and Coso fields). Many of the flows in the
    northeast and central parts of the field are veneered with varying
    thicknesses of air-fall tephra. In other areas, all but the youngest
    flows are mantled with extensive deposits of aeolian silt and fine
    sand.

    The Lunar Crater volcanic field is in the central Great Basin,
    approximately 105 kilometers east-northeast of Tonopah, Nevada, and
    140 kilometers southwest of Ely, Nevada. U.S. Highway 6 runs through
    the center of the Lunar Crater field.
    ______

    The 2nd earthquake which occurred in Nevada was ALSO a surface event.

    Occurring at 0km depth, again near dormant volcanoes, however these
    volcanoes are being MINED FOR GOLD. The actual earthquake occurring
    several miles away from the strip mines in this screenshot:


    http://dutchsinse.tatoott1009.com/wp-content/uploads/2014/04/surface-earthquakes-nevada-april-17-2014.jpg

    http://earthquake.usgs.gov/earthquakes/eventpage/usb000pp5e#summary
    http://earthquake.usgs.gov/earthquakes/eventpage/usb000pp5e#summary

    Event Time

    2014-04-17 17:07:21 UTC

    2014-04-17 10:07:21 UTC-07:00 at epicenter

    2014-04-17 12:07:21 UTC-05:00 system time

    Location
    40.834°N 116.344°W depth=0.0km (0.0mi)
    _____

    Overall, this is a further sign of the obvious unrest occurring along
    the Western portion of the craton.

    See my most recent earthquake overview for an idea of what is going
    on, why this is occurring:
    --------


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    Re: Global Volcano Watch

    Post  Carol on Wed May 07, 2014 2:20 pm


    USGS Says Mt. St. Helens Magma Re-pressurizing
    May 2014 – WASHINGTON – Federal scientists say magma levels inside Mount St. Helens are rising. A report issued Wednesday noted that super hot magma is percolating and several areas around the crater are moving away from the mountain. Seth Moran with the USGS says the molten phase that the volcano is going through right now is normal. Its last dome-building eruptive phase ended in 2008. Moran says there is no impending threat of an eruption, but does predict that it will be the next tornado to blow in the Cascades. Sometime perhaps within the next 20 to 200 years. It’s last serious eruption was in 2004. The May 18th, 1980 eruption was historical. -KXL


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    Re: Global Volcano Watch

    Post  Carol on Wed May 07, 2014 2:22 pm


    Submarine volcano reportedly erupts near Mariana Islands
    May 2014 – MARIANA ISLANDS – During the past week, we have been keeping a close watch on the Northern Mariana Islands (NMI), as seismometers on the islands record high levels of seismicity from an undersea volcano near the island of Farallon de Pajaros. The seismic signals almost certainly herald an eruption. In fact, submarine explosions were heard by scuba divers who are conducting coral reef research in the area. The divers even felt the shock waves from the explosions, and one of the most powerful ones reverberated through the hull of the NOAA base ship, Hi‘ialakai, leading the crew to think something had happened to the ship. Shipboard personnel also reported a large sulfur slick on the southeast coastline of Farallon de Pajaros. Unfortunately, the ship had to leave the area under threat of an advancing typhoon. If they can get back to the vicinity soon, they may be able to investigate the source of the explosions with great caution, keeping in close contact with U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and CNMI emergency management personnel, who are monitoring the seismicity. The CNMI emergency management office and the volcano observatories of the USGS have been working together for over 30 years to establish volcano monitoring networks and assess volcanic hazards in the Mariana Islands. The most likely source of the current activity is Ahyi seamount, about 20 km southeast of Farallon de Pajaros. Ahyi rises to within 64 m (210 ft) of the ocean surface and is associated with several reports of possible eruptions in historical times, the most recent in 2001.

    Interspersed among the volcanoes that rise above sea level to form the NMI are many submarine volcanoes. Together, the islands and submarine volcanoes form the Mariana arc, a classic example of an island arc. These arcs, such as the Aleutians and the Japanese archipelago, are formed at subduction zones—boundaries where one tectonic plate plunges beneath another. Reports of discolored water throughout the Mariana arc are common, indicating that the NMI may experience frequent submarine eruptions. A dramatic, recent example is the 2010 eruption of South Sarigan seamount, which sent an eruption plume up to 12 km (40,000 ft) above sea level. The plume intersected many commercial air traffic routes, raising concern that the abrasive ash fragments could damage aircraft or even stall their engines. In addition, the eruption posed a potential hazard to ocean-going vessels, as it produced a large area of discolored water, possibly including a raft of pumice—a type of rock that can be produced in explosive volcanic eruptions. A recent submarine eruption of Havre seamount north of New Zealand in 2012 created a 20,000 square-kilometer (7,700 sq-mi) raft of pumice—about twice the area of the island of Hawai‘i!—that eventually spread to about 4 million square-kilometers (1.5 million sq-mi) as it broke up. Pumice can float because it’s basically a type of foam—filled with gas bubbles encased in quickly cooled lava—which makes it less dense than the ocean water.

    It’s possible, but not certain, that the current unrest near Ahyi seamount will escalate into a vigorous eruption, with the creation of pumice rafts, and even an explosive eruption column rising above sea level. If this happens, there are further possible threats of local disturbances of the water column that could result in local tsunami and ash fallout from the eruption plume. Long-time readers of this column may be wondering about the possible outcomes of the seismic unrest that we sometimes report on from our own submarine volcano, Lō‘ihi, off the south coast of Hawai‘i Island. The most recent confirmed eruption there, in 1996, created a large collapse pit at the summit. Deposits formed during that eruption and numerous previous eruptions, sampled by submersible vehicles, attest to frequent episodes of explosive volcanism at Lō‘ihi. While there is no doubt that Lō‘ihi is a very active volcano, the pressure of the approximately 1,000 m (3,300 ft) of water between the top of the volcano and the surface makes it highly unlikely that even the most vigorous of eruptions of Lō‘ihi will have significant impact at the ocean surface during our lifetimes. –Hawaii 24-7
    http://www.hawaii247.com/2014/05/02/volcano-watch-a-new-submarine-eruption-in-the-northern-mariana-islands-could-it-happen-here/


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    Re: Global Volcano Watch

    Post  Carol on Mon May 12, 2014 10:32 am

    Newly-discovered active volcano could erupt underneath ice in Antarctica and add to effects of global warming
    Posted on May 12, 2014by The Extinction Protocol

    May 2014 – ANTARCTICA – Antarctic ice sheet is being threatened by an undersea volcano. Antarctica’s ice sheets may face a far more imminent threat than climate change: scientists have found a new volcano forming a mile under the ice, which is threatening a full eruption. The volcano appears to be a part of much larger system that is generating earthquakes and releasing heat into the ice above. Volcanic activity was discovered around 30 miles from Antarctica’s highest volcano, Mount Sidley, and although an eruption would be unlikely to breach the ice – the accompanying heat could have an effect on the landscape. Even a sub-glacial eruption would still be able to melt ice, creating huge amounts of water which could flow beneath the ice and towards the sea – hastening the flow of the overlying ice and potentially speed up the rate of ice sheet loss. “Numerous volcanoes exist in Marie Byrd Land, a highland region of West Antarctica,” said Amanda Lough, of Washington University in St Louis in the team’s paper on the subject, published in the Nature Geoscience journal.
    “High heat flow through the crust in this region may influence the stability of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet.” The Antarctic ice sheet is one of the Earth’s two polar ice caps and covers an area of 5.4 million square miles – around 98 percent of the continent, making it the largest single mass of ice on earth. Although scientists have suggested that sea ice around the continent is increasing, land ice appears to be decreasing and the area is very sensitive to global warming.  Seismologists had set up two crossing lines of seismographs across Marie Byrd Land in 2010 – the first time such instruments able to withstand the cold temperatures year-round had been used. –Daily Mail



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    Re: Global Volcano Watch

    Post  Carol on Mon May 12, 2014 10:32 am

    Volcanic quakes rattle Mt. Mayon volcano in the Philippines
    Posted on May 12, 2014by The Extinction Protocol

    May 2014 – PHILIPPINES - A magnitude 4.2 earthquake has hit the northern shores of Camarines Norte and Catanduanes provinces early morning on Sunday, the Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (Phivolcs) reported. The tremor’s epicenter was at 93 kilometers northwest of Pandan town, Catanduanes and was tectonic in origin, the Phivolc’s Seismological Observation and Earthquake Prediction Division said on its official online quake recording site. It was felt at around 4:07 a.m. on Sunday, the bulletin said. The quake was too far from the mainland to affect residents and property and no aftershocks were expected, the Phivolcs bulletin said. Meanwhile, Phivolcs, in an 8 a.m. bulletin on Sunday, said it has recorded three volcanic earthquakes on Mt. Mayon during the past 24-hour observation period. Moderate emission of white steam plumes that drifted west-northwest and west-southwest was also noted over the same period but no crater glow was observed on Saturday night.
    The volcano’s sulfur dioxide flux was measured at an average of 487 tons/day on May 6 while its geodetic results from ground deformation survey showed that its edifice, which showed swelling in November last year, has deflated and has returned to its 2010 level. Mayon Volcano’s alert status remains at Alert Level 1, which means that it is still at abnormal condition but no magmatic eruption is imminent, the bulletin said. However, the public was strongly advised anew to refrain from entering the 6-km radius Permanent Danger Zone (PDZ) due to the perennial life-threatening dangers of rockfalls, landslides or avalanches at the middle to upper slope, and sudden ash puffs and steam-driven or phreatic eruptions from the summit, Phivolcs said. -Inquirer



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    Re: Global Volcano Watch

    Post  Carol on Tue Jun 03, 2014 8:41 pm

    Ethiopian volcano spews stunning, deadly blue gas
    Posted on May 31, 2014

    by The Extinction Protocol


    May 2014 – AFRICA – New Scientist interviewed French photographer Olivier Grunewald, who captures striking images of nature like the Dallol volcano, located in the Danakil Depression of Ethiopia’s Afar region. Grunewald’s work uses no filters or digital enhancement, and the results are stunning. To capture the Ethiopian volcano, Grunewald waited until after dusk, when the blue flames were more visible against the night sky.

    Wondering where the blue effect comes from? The Dallol volcano’s lava is still red, like other volcanoes — the blue color appears when the flames mix with deadly sulphuric gases. Grunewald must wear a gas mask while working, but he says it’s worth the risk to experience nature’s wonders. “The phenomenon is so uncommon,” he told New Scientist. “We really feel like we are on another planet.” –The Week


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    Re: Global Volcano Watch

    Post  Carol on Tue Jun 03, 2014 8:42 pm

    Flights grounded, as Indonesia’s Sangeang volcano erupts
    Posted on May 31, 2014by The Extinction Protocol

    May 2014 – INDONESIA – Some flights between Australia and Southeast Asia and all domestic flights operating out of Darwin airport in the country’s north were canceled on Saturday after the eruption of Sangeang Api in Indonesia’s south produced a large cloud of ash. International flights to and from Australia to Singapore, East Timor and the Indonesian holiday island of Bali were among those cancelled, including those departing from Australia’s eastern seaboard after an ash cloud from Sangeang Api’s initial eruption on Friday evening tracked across central Australia. “The volcano is undergoing a sustained, rather significant eruption at the moment, so for the last 10 hours we’ve been observing large masses of volcanic ash being generated,” Emile Jansons, manager of the Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre told Reuters. “At the moment it has slowed down a little bit since its initial big eruption, but nobody has a very good handle on what this volcano is likely to do in the next 24 hours or beyond,” Jansons said, adding that the last eruption of Sangeang Api of this magnitude occurred in 1999.
    Based on weather conditions, the current ash cloud tracking across Australia is likely to dissipate before it reaches Australia’s eastern airports and major populations centres, Jansons said. Darwin will continue to be impacted until at least Sunday, he added. All flights into and out of Darwin International Airport were cancelled, spokeswoman Virginia Sanders confirmed. Darwin’s proximity to southeast Asia makes it an important Australian gateway to countries such as Indonesia and East Timor and an important hub for oil and natural gas off Australia’s north. Volcanic ash can be extremely dangerous to aircraft and cause engine failure or engine damage. Qantas Airways Ltd said it had cancelled all flights to and from Darwin on Saturday and its budget unit Jetstar had grounded nine international and domestic flights.
    Virgin Australia Holdings cancelled all flights into and out of Darwin and all flights into and out of Bali on Saturday evening, spokeswoman Jacqui Abbott confirmed. “Our team of meteorologists are continuing to monitor the situation, in consultation with the Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre,” the airline said in a statement. Regional carrier Airnorth, which flies many oil and gas workers to work in the region, also cancelled five flights on Saturday and a Tiger Airways Ltd domestic flight was also grounded. –NY Post


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    Re: Global Volcano Watch

    Post  Carol on Sat Jul 05, 2014 11:04 pm

     Mount Slamet Volcano erupts in Indonesia
    Posted on July 5, 2014by The Extinction Protocol

    July 2014 – INDONESIA – Mount Slamet, which covers five districts in Central Java, was reportedly still spewing volcanic ash in the area around its peak. On Friday night, thin volcanic ash began pouring out in the area around the observation post, head of Mount Slamet Observation Post, Sudrajat, said here on Saturday. However, there was no red-hot lava spewing from the volcano, which intersects the five districts of Banyumas, Purbalingga, Pemalang, Tegal and Brebes. That lava was seen from Monday night (June 30) to Tuesday (July 1). “Unfortunately, on the last two nights the peak has been covered with mist, so we couldnt make any observations,” Sudrajat said. The activity on Mount Slamet increased again on June 29 and has shown no signs of cooling, according to the observations made so far. The authorities have imposed alert level II (Waspada) on the volcano, and there was no activity to increase the alert levels, Sudrajat said. The increasing volcanic activity may have been caused by gases from the previous volcanic activity, that was blocked by stones, forcing the mount to release its trapped energy, Sudrajat said.
    “I hope that is the case,” he said. Based on observations conducted from the post located in Gambuhan Village, Pulosari sub-district, Pemalang District on Friday (July 4), Mount Slamet began emitting thin white smoke measuring between 50 and 150 meters in the sky. There was one internal tremor recorded, one harmonic tremor, 22 volcanic tremors and 306 tremors triggered by the blast. On March 10 at 22:00 local time, Volcanology and Geology Disaster Mitigation Center (PVMBG) raised the status of Mount Slamet from normal (level I) to alert level II (Waspada) due to increasing volcanic activity. On April 30, at 10:00 local time, the PVMBG raised Mount Slamets status to alert level III (Siaga) due to increasing tremors and eruptions. Then on May 12, at 16:00 local time PVMBG reduced the status from alert level III (Siaga) to alert level II (Waspada). –Antara News
    Another volcano awakens: A swarm of volcanic earthquakes that started yesterday under the Ambang volcano (Indonesia) prompted VSI to raise the alert status from normal to waspada (2 on a scale of 1-4). During 3 July, 62 volcanic quakes were detected, compared to averaged of 1-2 per day during the previous weeks. A light steam plume could be observed from the volcano’s summit. The remote volcano had its last eruption in 2005, when phreatic explosions occurred. –Volcano Discovery


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    Re: Global Volcano Watch

    Post  Carol on Sun Aug 10, 2014 12:17 pm

    Lava eruptions reported at Italy’s Stromboli and Ecuador’s Tungurahua volcanoes
    August 2014 – ITALY – Stromboli volcano lava eruption: The lava effusion continues at decreasing, but still considerable rate. When seen yesterday evening, only one channel, 5-10 m wide was still entering the sea at 10 m wide front, while there had been up to 7 branches reaching the shore in the area west of or partially covering the 2007 lava delta. Small explosions were occurring at the sea entry. Several lava branches were still weakly active on the upper Sciara, causing many incandescent rock falls.
    It appears that a part of the NE flank of the NE crater has collapsed and that the new effusive vent is located at its northern base, at approx. 700 m elevation. Thus, being lower than the summit vents, it is able to effectively drain the upper part of the volcano’s plumbing system, which explains why no explosions were observed at the summit craters. –Volcano Discovery
    Ecuador’s volcano spews lava: The 5,023-meter (16,575-foot) volcano Tungurahua, in Central Ecuador, spewed lava and incandescent rocks from its crater in its latest activity on Thursday. Tungurahua has been shooting plumes of ash into the sky to a distance of upto three kilometers (1.8 miles) since the beginning of the week. Civil defense officials have issued an “orange warning,” – involving voluntary evacuation – to villagers living near Tungurahua’s flanks. The Tungurahua volcano has been active since 1999. In 2006, it spewed large clouds of ash down its slopes, killing four people and leaving two missing. –RT


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    Re: Global Volcano Watch

    Post  Carol on Sun Aug 10, 2014 12:19 pm

    Awakening? Mysterious noises coming from remote Iceland volcano 
    that hasn’t erupted in more than 12,000 years
    Posted on August 8, 2014

    by The Extinction Protocol


    August 2014 – ICELAND – Strange rumblings coming from the tuya Herðubreið are confounding observers as to their possible source. Vísir reports that visitors to the mesa-shaped volcano in northeast Iceland have been unable to determine if the persistent rumblings coming from Herðubreið are being caused by an avalanche, landslide, or something else entirely. Rangers around Herðubreið were the first to announce the rumblings, which lasted about 30 seconds. Yesterday, Icelandic rescuers who had been searching for a group of French tourists found them at the foot of Herðubreið safe and sound, although they said there had been an avalanche. News of the avalanche was reported, but upon further inspection, no evidence of an avalanche could be found – except for the rumbling. Avalanches have been reported from mountains all over Iceland recently, which is highly unusual for the summer months. Tómas Jóhannesson, a meteorologist at the Met Office, told reporters that they intend to get to the bottom of the mystery. The volcano was shaken by a seismic swarm of nearly 5,300 quakes in 2007. The volcano had a swarm of about 100 quakes in May and another one of less intensity in July of 2014. Scientists say the volcano’s last eruption was during the Last Glacial Period more than 110,000 to 12,000 years ago. It was one of the largest eruptions known in Iceland’s history.  –Grapevine TEP


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