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    Carol
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    Re: Global Volcano Watch

    Post  Carol on Fri Nov 25, 2011 4:45 pm


    Colombia Geleras volcano raised to level orange alert
    November 25, 2011 – COLOMBIA – The Galeras volcano in Colombia’s western department of Nariño could erupt within weeks or days, according to authorities. The level of volcanic activity was increased to orange alert Thursday 9PM by the Colombian Geological Service and the Volcanology and Seismology Observatory of Pasto, which are monitoring the activity of Galeras. The institutions stated that in the last 24 hours, tremors have been registered that have similar characteristics to those in the period prior to the majority of eruptions, which occurred between 1992 and 2010. There has been a reduction in the emission of gases, reflected in the low values of sulphur dioxide measured, both coming from craters and fields of volcanic fissures. Some 8,000 people live in the area surrounding the volcano that reawakened in 1988. The Colombian Geological Service will continue to monitor the situation of the Galeras volcano. –Colombia Reports
    http://colombiareports.com/colombia-news/news/20685-colombian-volcano-raised-to-orange-alert.html


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    Re: Global Volcano Watch

    Post  Carol on Fri Nov 25, 2011 4:47 pm

    November 25, 2011 – INDONESIA - Indonesia’s Mount Anak Krakatau volcano has been puffing white smoke the last few days, and scientists are warning locals and tourists to keep away. That could mean that the long suspected eruption of the world’s most famous volcano could be imminent. Actually, this volcano is the remnant of the biggest blast ever recorded on Earth. That was the 1883 eruption of Mount Krakatoa. From the ruins of that gigantic crater left in the land has come forth what is now known as the Anak Krakatau volcano—literally “Krakatoa’s Child.” In the time since the original eruption, scientists have gotten much better at predicting when a volcano will have a catastrophic eruption, distinguishing it from the many smaller eruptions which do not harm the local population or environment. One of the telltale signs is sudden and increased activity like what scientists are seeing in this past week at the Anak Krakatau volcano. Of course, not wanting to take unnecessary chances, scientists have to balance warning off residents with calling a false alarm. That’s why this recent warning is so significant. Seismologists have learned to read the signs to an astonishingly accurate degree and have a tremendous track record for getting it right. So, the world may be close to once again hearing the loudest sound ever recorded. And this time, the spectacular show will be caught on tape! The volcano remains on level 3 alert.–Gather


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    Re: Global Volcano Watch

    Post  Carol on Mon Nov 28, 2011 11:26 pm


    Pan-American volcanic awakening- Ecuador’s Tungurahua volcano goes into convulsions
    November 29, 2011 – QUITO – Authorities in the South American nation of Ecuador on Monday afternoon urged residents near the Tungurahua volcano to evacuate after a rapid increase of volcanic activity. Ecuador’s Geophysical Institute of the National Technology School said the Tungurahua volcano had three pyroclastic boulder flows toward the south at around 7:35 a.m. local time on Monday. Its loud roars have reportedly shook residential windows up to 14 kilometers (8.6 miles) away. Previously, at around 2 a.m. local time, the institute registered an explosion as incandescent material covered all of the volcano’s slopes. Some three hours later, intense and moderately strong roars were also registered, accompanied with incandescent material, as well as lava blocks and fluid lava, descending about one kilometer (0.6 mile) down its crater. The Institute warned that the 5,023-meter (16,480-feet) tall Tungurahua continued its strong seismic activity throughout Monday and spewed out thick ash clouds of up to 3 kilometers (1.8 miles) high into the northeastern, southeastern and eastern regions. The Tungurahua Province Emergency Operation Committee subsequently raised its alert level from yellow to orange, immediately activating its emergency protocols. Officials have urged four villages nearby to evacuate in fear of a full eruption. The Tungurahua volcano is located about 135 kilometers (84 miles) south of Quito, the nation’s capital. Its eruptive phases began in 1999 and, since then, it has experienced both calm and highly active periods. –Upfront News http://upfrontnewswire.com/1964/ecuador-urges-villages-near-the-tungurahua-volcano-to-evacuate/

    Volcanic and seismic awakening of Pan-America: The seismic and volcanic awakening of Pan-America is now well underway. The Caribbean Plate comprises an area of roughly 3.2 million square km (1.2 million square miles) and it is undergoing major stress. A series of seismic swarms in this region resulted in the outbreak of a 5.1 magnitude earthquake which struck off the coast of San Juan Puerto Rico today. The northern boundary of the Caribbean Plate with the North American plate is a transform or strike-slip boundary which runs from the border area of Belize, Guatemala (Motagua Fault), and Honduras in Central America, eastward through the Cayman trough on south of the southeast coast of Cuba, and just north of Hispaniola, Puerto Rico, and the Virgin Islands. Part of the Puerto Rico Trench, the deepest part of the Atlantic Ocean (roughly 8,400 meters), also lies along this border. The Puerto Rico trench is at a complex transition from the subduction boundary to the south and the transform boundary to the west. The Cocos plate on the western border of Pan America is subducting under the Caribbean Plate. The whole region is becoming more violent as geological forces increase plate pressures on the region and the sea-floor is violently stirred along the Puerto Rico trench. The trench has an unsettling history of producing very powerful earthquakes- 8.1 magnitude earthquakes struck the region both in 1787 and 1946. In light of the rising earthquake risks, UNESCO conducted a Caribbean Tsunami warning exercise on March 23, 2011 in anticipation of a 7.6 magnitude earthquake. It goes without saying, we’re overdue for another major earthquake to strike this region. As a result of the mounting seismic tension on the western region of the plate, we’re already witnessing the volcanic and seismic awakening of much of Pan-America. On November 20, Mexico’s Popocatepetl volcano unleashed a 5 km ash cloud. On November 22nd, Guatemala’s lofty Fuego volcano followed suit with a 2 km cloud of dark ash. On November 25th, the alert status of Colombia’s Gelaras volcano was raised to orange. On November 26th, the dense upper volcanic belt of El Salvador was shaken by a swarm of over 700 tremors in a 24-hour-period. Now Ecuador’s Tungurahua volcano is the latest telltale sign that the time-bomb in the Atlanic is still ticking.


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    Re: Global Volcano Watch

    Post  Carol on Fri Dec 02, 2011 1:55 pm


    http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-europe-15995845
    New Icelandic volcano eruption could have global impact
    Hundreds of metres under one of Iceland's largest glaciers there are signs of a looming volcanic eruption that could be one of the most powerful the country has seen in almost a century.

    Mighty Katla, with its 10km (6.2 mile) crater, has the potential to cause catastrophic flooding as it melts the frozen surface of its caldera and sends billions of gallons of water surging through Iceland's east coast and into the Atlantic Ocean.

    "There has been a great deal of seismic activity," says Ford Cochran, the National Geographic's expert on Iceland.

    There were more than 500 tremors in and around the caldera of Katla just in October, which suggests the motion of magma.

    "And that certainly suggests an eruption may be imminent."

    Scientists in Iceland have been closely monitoring the area since 9 July, when there appears to have been some sort of disturbance that may have been a small eruption.


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    Re: Global Volcano Watch

    Post  Carol on Fri Dec 02, 2011 5:11 pm

    Seimic unrest continues to build at Iceland’s Katla volcano
    http://news.sky.com/home/world-news/article/16122186
    December 2, 2011 – ICELAND – A huge Icelandic volcano long overdue an eruption is showing signs of activity – threatening disruption to air traffic, experts have said. There have been more than 500 tremors at Katla in the south of the country in just the last month. An increase in activity at the site since July has also been causing volcanologists concern, when increasing temperatures and seismic activity caused a flood, washing away a road bridge. The last major eruption at the volcano was in 1918, and caused such a large glacier meltdown that icebergs were swept by the resulting floods into the ocean. Significant activity at Katla – which has a huge 6.2 mile (10km) crater – usually occurs every 40 to 80 years. It is feared when it does eventually erupt, it could be the most powerful activity the country has seen in almost a century. Catastrophic flooding could result as the frozen surface of the volcano melts, sending vast amounts of water into the Atlantic Ocean. Volcano expert Andy Hooper, from Delft University, said although there had been increased activity at the site, it was difficult to predict if and when Katla would erupt. However, he told Sky News Online that the implications for Iceland if an eruption did occur would be “major.” “Because of the glacier on top, massive amounts of ice would melt, washing away the roads. There could also be a big ash fallout on people living in the area and that will affect the farms. There could be big implications for people there. In terms of the rest of the world, it really depends on the weather at the time of the eruption. If Katla erupts, it will erupt higher (than recent volcanoes) and that means the ash will stay around longer – that could impact on air traffic.” A statement on Iceland’s Met Office website warned there was no imminent threat but that “given the heightened levels of seismic activity, the situation might change abruptly.” –Sky Way


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    Re: Global Volcano Watch

    Post  Carol on Fri Dec 02, 2011 8:13 pm


    http://focustaiwan.tw/ShowNews/WebNews_Detail.aspx?Type=aALL&ID=201112020032
    Mud volcano in Taiwan expels mud up to two meters deep
    December 3, 2011 – TAIWAN - Wandan mud dome, one of Taiwan’s 17 active mud volcanoes, erupted early Friday after nearly a year of inactivity, spilling mud flows of up to two meters high. Up to noon Friday, hot gray mud was still spewing from the volcano in Pingtung County and residents could be seen lighting fires nearby to burn off the gases emitted by the volcano. The mud flowing from three cracks in Hsinyuan Township spread to a public cemetery and a corn field but no other damage was reported. The eruption occurred south of Wandan Township, where the first eruption in the 1720s was recorded. The eruptions typically take place once or twice every year near the border between the two towns. There has not been an eruption in Hsinyuan itself for nearly half a century, according. –Focus Taiwan


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    Sanicle

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    Re: Global Volcano Watch

    Post  Sanicle on Fri Dec 02, 2011 10:11 pm

    Below is a list of all the volcanic eruptions around the world from the beginning of this year from the RSOE EDIS database. ie HEAPS!

    02.12.2011 17:06:28 VE-20111202-33251-TWN Taiwan Wandan mud dome Read
    28.11.2011 04:21:58 VE-20111128-33194-ECU Ecuador Cordillera Oriental Tungurahua volcano Read
    23.11.2011 04:09:58 VE-20111123-33129-CHL Chile Ranco Province Puyehue-CordĂłn Caulle Volcanic Complex (PCCVC) Read
    22.11.2011 11:47:07 VE-20111122-33123-GTM Guatemala Sierra Madre VolcĂĄn de Fuego Read
    20.11.2011 20:44:21 VE-20111120-33106-MEX Mexico The Federal District Popocatepetl volcano Read
    07.11.2011 12:18:21 VE-20111107-32972-COG Democratic Republic of the Congo Virunga Mountains Volcan Nyamulagira Read
    26.10.2011 13:47:49 VE-20111026-32838-IDN Indonesia Sulawesi Mount Lokon Volcano Read
    24.10.2011 02:55:43 VE-20111024-32802-ITA Italy Sicily Mt Etna Volcano Read
    16.10.2011 18:04:46 VE-20111016-32715-RUS Russia [Asia] Kamchatka Peninsula Mt. Shiveluch Volcano Read
    14.10.2011 03:35:04 VE-20111018-32735-SPI Canary-Islands (Esp.) Island of El Hierro Underwater volcano (unnamed) Read
    30.09.2011 03:39:21 VE-20110930-32489-ERI Eritrea Danakil Desert Anabro (Nabro) volcano Read
    22.09.2011 02:58:41 VE-20110922-32404-USA USA State of Hawaii Puu Oo crater. Kīlauea volcano Read
    13.09.2011 12:21:40 VE-20110913-32319-RUS Russia [Asia] Kamchatka Peninsula (Far-East) Volcano Shiveluch Read
    04.09.2011 04:36:37 VE-20110904-32206-JPN Japan Kagoshima Prefecture Mt. Sakurajima Volcano, Kyūshū Read
    31.08.2011 05:48:33 VE-20110831-32165-MEX Mexico Mexico-Puebla-Morelos Popocatepetl Volcano Read
    30.08.2011 07:34:39 VE-20110830-32149-ITA Italy Sicily Mount Etna Volcano Read
    29.08.2011 11:33:32 VE-20110829-32139-RUS Russia [Asia] Kamchatka Peninsula (Far-East) Volcano Shiveluch Read
    27.08.2011 04:09:09 VE-20110827-32108-CHL Chile Ranco Province Puyehue-Cordon Caulle volcanic complex Read
    21.08.2011 15:18:50 VE-20110821-32038-RUS Russia [Asia] Kamchatka Peninsula Kizimen volcano Read
    14.08.2011 12:35:38 VE-20110814-31950-IDN Indonesia Sulawesi Soputan volcano Read
    10.08.2011 03:33:09 VE-20110810-31906-USA USA States of Washington and Oregon Axial Volcano, Juan de Fuca Ridge Read
    08.08.2011 02:57:07 VE-20110808-31881-IDN Indonesia Siau Island Mt. Karangetang Volcano Read
    07.08.2011 03:45:49 VE-20110807-31873-IDN Indonesia West Sumatra Mount Marapi Volcano Read
    22.07.2011 10:20:44 VE-20110722-31696-RUS Russia [Asia] Kamchatka Peninsula (Far-East) Kizimen Volcano Read
    20.07.2011 04:49:17 VE-20110720-31664-ITA Italy Sicily Mount Etna Volcano Read
    11.07.2011 06:46:51 VE-20110711-31503-IDN Indonesia Sulawesi Mount Lokon Volcano Read
    10.07.2011 11:56:04 VE-20110710-31481-ITA Italy Sicily Mt Etna Volcano Read
    03.07.2011 03:02:22 VE-20110703-31385-IDN Indonesia Sulawesi Soputan volcano Read
    13.06.2011 03:15:47 VE-20110613-31121-ERI Eritrea Eritrea-Ethiopia regions Anabro (Nabro) volcano Read
    03.06.2011 20:20:10 VE-20110603-31002-MEX Mexico Popocatepetl volcano Read
    02.06.2011 05:08:42 VE-20110602-30974-VUT Vanuatu Tanna Island Mount Yasur Volcano Read
    31.05.2011 08:23:50 VE-20110531-30949-RUS Russia [Asia] Kamchatka Peninsula (Far-East) Shiveluch Volcano Read
    22.05.2011 02:09:17 VE-20110522-30830-ISL Iceland VatnajĂśkull glacier GrĂ­msvĂśtn Volcano Read
    18.05.2011 03:11:55 VE-20110518-30780-NIC Nicaragua Departmento de LeĂłn Telica volcano Read
    12.05.2011 02:43:34 VE-20110512-30695-ITA Italy Sicily Etna Volcano Read
    03.05.2011 11:04:05 VE-20110503-30579-RUS Russia [Asia] Kamchatka Peninsula (Far-East) Shiveluch Volcano Read
    03.05.2011 06:42:01 VE-20110503-30577-RUS Russia [Asia] Kamchatka Peninsula (Far-East) Kizimen Volcano Read
    27.04.2011 03:13:21 VE-20110427-30486-ECU Ecuador Cordillera Oriental Tungurahua volcano Read
    13.03.2011 20:14:05 VE-20110313-29938-AZE Azerbaijan Gobustan Region Shikhzayirli mud volcano Read
    13.03.2011 15:52:41 VE-20110313-29937-JPN Japan KyĂźshĂź Shinmoedake Volcano Read
    12.03.2011 03:54:44 VE-20110312-29915-RUS Russia [Asia] Kamchatka Peninsula Two undefinied volcanoes Read
    11.03.2011 12:53:49 VE-20110311-29882-IDN Indonesia Siau Island Mount Karangetang Volcano Read
    07.03.2011 08:17:32 VE-20110307-29797-GTM Guatemala Sierra Madre VolcĂĄn de Fuego Read
    07.03.2011 08:15:54 VE-20110307-29796-GTM Guatemala Quetzaltenango Department Santa Maria Volcano Read
    06.03.2011 20:22:28 VE-20110306-29791-USA USA State of Hawaii Puu Oo Crater Read
    21.02.2011 04:35:29 VE-20110221-29650-PHL Philippines Province of Sorsogon Volcano Mount Bulusan Read
    19.02.2011 14:36:58 VE-20110219-29629-ITA Italy Isle of Sicily Mt Etna Volcano Read
    08.02.2011 06:00:10 VE-20110208-29480-JPN Japan Kagoshima Prefecture, KyĂźshĂź Minamidake Crater, Sakurajima Volcano Read
    27.01.2011 11:52:48 VE-20110127-29330-JPN Japan Prefectures of Kagoshima and Miyazaki Shinmoedake Volcano Read
    27.01.2011 11:10:24 VE-20110127-29329-IDN Indonesia East Java Tengger Caldera Volcano Read
    13.01.2011 17:43:23 VE-20110113-29184-ITA Italy Sicily Mt Etna Volcano Read
    12.01.2011 04:32:02 VE-20110112-29166-IDN Indonesia Sunda Strait Krakatau volcano Read
    09.01.2011 04:56:08 VE-20110109-29117-RUS Russia [Asia] Kamchatka Peninsula Kizimen volcano Read

    Link: http://hisz.rsoe.hu/alertmap/search/index.php?lang=eng
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    Carol
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    Re: Global Volcano Watch

    Post  Carol on Sat Dec 03, 2011 9:32 pm

    Sunday 4th December 2011 - Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii
    A lava flow is advancing towards the old Royal Gardens subdivision at Kilauea volcano in Hawaii. The flow is moving alongside a kipuka and has started forest fires. The lava is moving west of the February 2010 flow and is close to the last inhabited house in the subdivision.



    Somerset official warns gas exploration project in Mendip could awaken massive volcano
    December 3, 2011 – BRITAIN – Does a great and terrible fate await us if drilling starts below the Mendip hills to extract gas? A Mendip hills expert says it might. Nigel Taylor, caver, wildlife and nature campaigner, explosives expert and Mendip district councilor, has carried out a study of the Mendip Hills and has discovered that there is a volcanic plug that could be holding back a river of lava ready to erupt if disturbed. “It may sound ridiculous,” Mr. Taylor said, “but it is no more ridiculous than drilling deep into the earth’s crust and setting off explosions to release trapped gas without knowing all of the potential consequences. “We could be sitting on a Mendip volcano.” Mr. Taylor says that Moons Hill Quarry, which is situated at the heart of the Mendip Plateau near Stoke St Michael, is a massive Silurian Volcanic plug of Basalt rock. He said: “The rain falling onto the Mendips soaks down, and are superheated on their journey to the Roman Baths at Bath by volcanic activity deep in the earth’s surface under that volcanic plug, long thought extinct. But what could happen if the exploration company is allowed to carry out ‘fracking activities’ on the Mendips?” Fracking is the process of pumping water underground until the gas bearing shale fractures and releases the pressurized gas it contains. In the United States fracking has been blamed for widespread pollution – with its release in the water supply causing tap water to catch fire. The energy industry says the process is safe and an essential source of energy for the future. Mr. Taylor said: “I am keeping an open mind about all of this, but have more than a pressing concern about a risk that nobody appears to have either realized or considered. “We could either end up diverting the hot waters from Bath into ruptured rocks deep below us, pollute them with shale oils and gases, or the doomsday nightmare scenario – destabilize our geology and awake a sleeping giant.” -Sommerset
    http://www.thisissomerset.co.uk/sitting-Mendip-volcano-says-Somerset-expert/story-14010082-detail/story.html


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    Re: Global Volcano Watch

    Post  Carol on Sun Dec 04, 2011 2:13 pm


    Mount Gamalama erupts in Indonesia- residents urged to stay calm
    http://english.cri.cn/6966/2011/12/05/2724s670156.htm
    December 4, 2011 – INDONESIA – Mount Gamalama in Indonesia’s North Maluku province erupted at 23:00 local time on Sunday (1400 GMT), releasing volcanic ashes. There is no death or material loss due to the eruption. Sutopo Purwo Nugroho, head of the Center of Data, Information and Public Relation at the National Agency of Disaster Management (BNPB), said in a statement that people living around the foot of the volcano have took refuge to safer places. However, some of them chose to stay at their houses. “The Regional Agency of Disaster Mitigation (BPBD) of North Maluku province keeps coordinating with related institutions for emergency handling. It keeps monitoring and recording (the situation),” said Nugroho. Some parts of the provincial capital city of Ternate were covered by ash rain and blackout was occurred at the foot of the volcano. People were urged to stay calm. “Yes it erupted but we asked people to stay calm,” Surono, head of the Center of Vulcanology and Geological Disaster Mitigation ( PVMBG) told the country’s largest news portal detikcom. The last eruption recorded at the volcano was in 2008. –CRI English


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    Re: Global Volcano Watch

    Post  Carol on Sun Dec 04, 2011 2:22 pm


    Record number of mud volcanoes erupting across the planet- Trinadad mud volcano awakens after 14 years
    December 4, 2011 – TRINADAD – Residents of Piparo are living on the edge as the mud volcano that ravaged the village 14 years ago, has begun to threaten their community again. Residents are subjected to sleepless nights as they are haunted with memories of February 22, 1997, when steaming mud crushed houses and swept away cars, livestock and all else in its path. When the Sunday Guardian visited the site off Old Piparo Road yesterday, two new mounds had surfaced, spewing mud several feet into the air at five minute intervals. At the scene was Shammarine Kissoondath, 56, who lives nearby. He said he came to see what was happening as he had been kept awake by strange sounds issuing from the volcano. He said: “It sounded like gunshots and this morning when I awoke it was still making noise. This is the same sound it made before it erupted in 1997. It is possible that we can have a repeat and maybe this time it could be worse.” He said it only took ten minutes on that fateful day for the massive amount of mud spewing from the volcano to wreak havoc. Boyie Suratt, who lives about 300 feet from the volcano said he, too, has been sleeping restlessly since Thursday. Suratt’s home is nearest the volcano and he said while he does not believe that it will erupt any time soon, no one can predict when and how severe another eruption might be. “I was home in my gallery around 3 am on Thursday and I heard this sound like people bursting bamboo. We usually get a little noise now and then, especially when it rains because gas is trying to escape. But now the noise has been coming frequently like it have plenty gas down there.” He explained that the rain softens the mud which causes minor explosions. However, he admits that over the past few days the noise levels had increased significantly occurring at an alarming rate. He, too, recalled the drama that unfolded in 1997, saying that a wave of mud several feet high was crumbling any house in its path. Suratt said his home was saved as another house that crumbled was able to forge a barrier in front of his. He said on February 22, 1997, he awoke to mud spewing some 200 feet into the air. –Guardian


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    Re: Global Volcano Watch

    Post  Carol on Mon Dec 05, 2011 9:08 am


    Mount Gamalama in Indonesia's Maluku Erupts
    http://english.cri.cn/6966/2011/12/05/2724s670156.htm
    Mount Gamalama in Indonesia's North Maluku province erupted at 23:00 local time on Sunday (1400 GMT), releasing volcanic ashes. There is no death or material loss due to the eruption. Sutopo Purwo Nugroho, head of the Center of Data, Information and Public Relation at the National Agency of Disaster Management (BNPB), said in a statement that people living around the foot of the volcano have took refuge to safer places. However, some of them chose to stay at their houses. "The Regional Agency of Disaster Mitigation (BPBD) of North Maluku province keeps coordinating with related institutions for emergency handling. It keeps monitoring and recording (the situation)," said Nugroho. Some parts of the provincial capital city of Ternate were covered by ash rain and blackout was occurred at the foot of the volcano.

    People were urged to stay calm.


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    Re: Global Volcano Watch

    Post  Carol on Tue Dec 06, 2011 6:57 am

    Monday 5th December 2011 - Gamalama Volcano, Indonesia
    Gamalama volcano in Indonesia erupted at 11 pm local time on 4th December 2011. The eruption deposited ash over the Ternate. On 4th December 47 shallow volcanic earthquakes were recorded at the volcano compared to 1 shallow earthquake on 3rd December. http://www.volcanolive.com/gamalama.html

    Sunday 4th December 2011 - Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii
    A lava flow is advancing towards the old Royal Gardens subdivision at Kilauea volcano in Hawaii. The flow is moving alongside a kipuka and has started forest fires. The lava is moving west of the February 2010 flow and is close to the last inhabited house in the subdivision. http://www.volcanolive.com/kilauea.html


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    Re: Global Volcano Watch

    Post  Carol on Tue Dec 06, 2011 2:09 pm


    http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/science-environment-16056192

    Ring of Fire subduction upheaval: volcanic mountains dragged violently to their death
    December 6, 2011 – RING OF FIRE – Startling new images from the depths of the Pacific Ocean reveal one of Earth’s most violent processes: the destruction of massive underwater mountains. The pictures were created by sonar in waters up to four miles (6km) deep. They expose how tectonic action is dragging giant volcanoes into a chasm in the seabed. The volcanoes are strung out across several thousand miles of ocean floor and are moving westwards on the Pacific tectonic plate at up to 6cm per year. The extraordinary scene – the geological equivalent of a ‘death march’ – was captured along the Tonga Trench during a research expedition last summer. The trench is a highly active fault line running north from New Zealand towards Tonga and Samoa. Where the Pacific plate collides with the Indo-Australian plate, it is forced downwards into the trench, a subduction zone, and the volcanoes are carried with it. The trench, reaching a depth of 10.9km, forms the second deepest stretch of seabed anywhere in the world – easily large enough to hold Mount Everest. One image shows the volcano nearest the edge of the abyss – the next to be destroyed – already starting to collapse. With frequent earthquakes, the region is vulnerable to tsunamis and one aim of the research is to understand whether the destruction of the volcanoes adds to the risk. One theory is that the volcanoes add friction to the movement of the two plates which leads to a greater build-up of tension and consequently to a more explosive quake. Analysis so far has not determined the precise impact of this process. -BBC

    read more at link http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/science-environment-16056192


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    Re: Global Volcano Watch

    Post  Carol on Thu Dec 08, 2011 10:45 am


    http://www.sfgate.com/cgi-bin/article.cgi?f=/c/a/2011/12/06/MNAD1M9156.DTL
    Silent rage: Geologists warn one day Kilauea’s calm eruptions will turn violently explosive
    December 7, 2011 – HAWAII – Kilauea, the sleepy Hawaiian volcano famed for its quiet lava flows, could awaken into violent explosive eruptions at any time, geologists on the Big Island warn. Researchers at the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory – where 5,000 mainland visitors a day come to see the lava – have uncovered detailed evidence that during three long periods over the past 2,500 years, the summit of the shaking mountain has blasted out fiery rocks, steam and carbon dioxide again and again. It’s bound to happen again, but the scientists say they can’t predict when. Donald Swanson of the U.S. Geological Survey and director of the observatory, along with his colleagues, are reporting on their research into the volcano’s intermittent activity this week at the annual meeting of the American Geophysical Union in San Francisco’s Moscone Center. “Our research shows that Kilauea is a dangerous explosive volcano for long periods of time, alternating with periods dominated by gentle lava flows,” Swanson said during a briefing for reporters. Continuous and often spectacularly scenic lava flows, interrupted only occasionally by modest explosive eruptions, have marked the volcano’s activity for the past 200 years, but the 300 years before that saw one explosive eruption after another, he said. Swanson and his colleagues have just completed a fresh look at Kilauea’s worst eruption in history, which killed uncounted numbers of Hawaiian people in November 1790. “The good news is that we are currently in a period of frequent lava flows, and the hazard of explosive eruptions is small,” Swanson said. “The bad news is that we don’t know when the next period of deep caldera and explosive eruptions will start. We know too little to estimate recurrence intervals.” –SF Gate excerpt


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    Re: Global Volcano Watch

    Post  Carol on Sat Dec 10, 2011 11:10 am

    Saturday 10th December 2011 - A lava flow has reached the old Royal Gardens subdivision and is burning forest in a kipuka. Lava is also advancing across the coastal plain towards the ocean. At the summit of Kilauea volcano there is a lava lake in a vent 75 m below the floor of Halemaumau crater. On the east rift zone lava periodically appears in Pu'u O'o crater.


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    Re: Global Volcano Watch

    Post  Carol on Wed Dec 14, 2011 11:46 pm


    Kamchatka’s Kizimen volcano expels 7km ash plume
    http://english.ruvr.ru/2011/12/15/62243523.html
    December 15, 2011 – KAMCHATKA – The Kizimen volcano on Kamchatka Peninsula is spewing ash plumes to a height of more than 7 kilometers. It is reported to be dangerous to aircraft. Small abrasive particles of volcanic ash can get into the aircraft mechanisms, causing the plane to crash. The volcano has been assigned the highest, red hazard code to aviation. According to scientists, the erupting volcano presently does not pose any threat to the public. -VOR


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    Re: Global Volcano Watch

    Post  Carol on Fri Dec 16, 2011 8:26 am


    http://www.bigislandvideonews.com/2011/12/14/hawaii-volcanoes-park-provides-access-to-lava-ocean-entry/
    Magma plume: profuse lava flow from Kīlauea breaches West Ka‘ili‘ili ocean entry for the first time in 4 years
    December 15, 2011 – HAWAII – Lava from Kīlauea’s remote Pu‘u ‘Ō‘ō vent has again reached the ocean within Hawai‘i Volcanoes National Park boundaries, at a spot scientists have named the West Ka‘ili‘ili ocean entry. The arduous hike to West Ka‘ili‘ili from the bottom of Chain of Craters Road is approximately four miles one-way across an uneven flow field. Currently, several streams of lava are pouring into the ocean, providing dramatic views. Visitors who stay after dark can also see channels of lava flowing down the pali and across the flow field, but conditions can change at any time. Hikers need to heed all warning signs and ranger advisories, and be aware of earth cracks and crevices, sharp terrain and rain-slick pāhoehoe lava and other hazards. Steam plumes produced by lava entering the sea contain fine lava fragments and acid droplets that can be harmful. Scientists also confirmed that a lava delta is being formed at the base of a sea cliff at West Ka‘ili‘ili, and are monitoring the area closely. Lava deltas can collapse with little warning, produce hot rock falls inland, and generate large local waves. “While we are thrilled to be able to provide public access to the new ocean entry site, it is imperative that visitors obey park rangers and all warning signs in the area,” said Hawai‘i Volcanoes National Park Superintendent Cindy Orlando. “Hikers must be adequately prepared with plenty of drinking water, dressed for rain or sunshine, wear sturdy, closed-toe shoes, carry a flashlight and spare batteries, and be in good physical shape for this hike.” Once the wet weather subsides, park rangers will stick reflective trail markers along the rough coastal trail that begins shortly after the end of Chain of Craters Road and leads to a viewing area about a quarter of a mile away. The West Ka‘ili‘ili ocean entry site is located near the park’s eastern border, and is the first time lava has entered the ocean within park boundaries since 2007. Recent ocean entries have occurred outside the park to the east, through private land and areas within County of Hawai‘i jurisdiction. –Big Island News



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    Re: Global Volcano Watch

    Post  Carol on Sat Dec 17, 2011 10:20 am

    December 17, 2011 – INDONESIA – Seismic tremors at Anak Krakatau have decreased from about a thousand a day down to around 550. Indonesian officials said the mountain summit, however, is still trembling violently and the volcano is still emitting a dense low-lying cloud of smoke. Geologists say the cloud emissions from Anak Krakatau have reached about 100 meters in height. The Geological Disaster Mitigation agency in Indonesia said the volcano remains on Level 3 alert and the 2 kilometer exclusion zone around the volcano remains in place. –Media Indonesia translated




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    Re: Global Volcano Watch

    Post  Carol on Sat Dec 17, 2011 10:22 am

    December 17, 2011 – ICELAND The Icelandic Meteorological Office’s SIL earthquake monitoring system picked up approximately 1,300 tremors in Iceland this past November, the largest of which measured 3.5 on the Richter scale and hit the Katla caldera on November 8. Most of the earthquakes last month had their epicenter below the Mýrdalsjökull icecap, which covers the volcano Katla, and by Húsmúli on Hellisheiði where Reykjavík Energy is based; the seismic activity there is caused by geothermal boreholes, Morgunblaðið reports. A series of minor earthquakes occurred on Hellisheiði on Monday night this week. Around 20 tremors were picked up by sensors, the largest of which was close to two points on the Richter scale. Otherwise, Hellisheiði has been quiet lately. So has Katla, which is being closely observed due to increased seismic activity, volcanic eruption concerns caused by the lighting equipment used by the film crew of Game of Thrones last week aside.


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    Re: Global Volcano Watch

    Post  Carol on Mon Dec 19, 2011 4:50 am


    http://www.redding.com/news/2011/dec/17/ready-to-erupt-counties-hazard-mitigation-plans/
    Mt. Shasta, Lassen Peak ready to erupt? Counties’ plans provide no specifics on evacuations
    December 19, 2011 – CALIFORNIA - While a catastrophic eruption of Mt. Shasta or Lassen Peak could destroy huge swaths of the north state, local counties recently have approved vague disaster plans that assume critical details will be worked out on the spot. Geologists at the U.S. Geological Survey say there’s a one in three or one in four chance Mt. Shasta could erupt in north state residents’ lifetimes. While Shasta and Siskiyou counties’ “hazard mitigation plans,” drafted this fall, discuss the various risks associated with an eruption and identify key facilities at risk, the documents offer no specifics on how the counties would handle the mass evacuations of entire towns. They don’t address how they’d cope with choking clouds of toxic gas and ash, highways buried in volcanic debris or lava flows and threats to power transmission lines or other mass infrastructure failures. Shasta County’s plan has been approved by state officials, although it’s awaiting clearance from the Federal Emergency Management Agency. Siskiyou County’s plan, which remains open for public comment through the end of the month, is similarly short on specifics. Instead, the plans primarily rely on the assumption that federal geologists monitoring the volcanoes would give county officials plenty of warning, enough time for them to decide what to do. But volcanic experts caution that’s not always a given. When Mt. St. Helens first erupted in 1980, geologists had about a week’s notice, said Carolyn Driedger, a hydrologist and outreach director for the U.S. Geological Survey’s Cascades Volcano Observatory in Vancouver, Wash. “Yes, they do give warning, but it’s highly variable how much warning,” she said. She said geologists in Oregon and Washington have met with local governments to develop ‘coordination plans that spell out precisely what to do if we have volcanic unrest,” so “it’s not unusual for you to question” why north state disaster planners haven’t done the same. Pat Minturn, Shasta County’s public works director, said the county plan intentionally avoids some details. He said recent large-scale urban disasters like the Loma Prieta earthquake in 1989 and Hurricane Katrina in 2005 proved it’s impossible to plan for every scenario. “It always throws you a left hook out of nowhere,” he said. Mt. Shasta last erupted in 1786. –Redding


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    Re: Global Volcano Watch

    Post  Carol on Tue Dec 20, 2011 11:07 am



    Volcanic eruption in red sea, red lava reached 20-30m high (updated)
    MODIS & GE images below shows that likely source of the eruption is Jebel Zubair island in Zubair islands area.


    Volcanic eruption on the island of Saba and lava rises to more than 20 meters
    According to a number of local fishermen Salif Department of Hodeidah A volcanic eruption in the Red Sea left the lava to a height of 20 meters. According to local fishermen, the volcanic eruption occurred near the island of Saba, one of the Yemeni islands affiliated to al-Zubayr islands and called Alswaba.The fishermen, according to the Center of Information security was a volcanic eruption can be seen from a distance of 3 hours course by boat, stressing that is located 30 nautical miles from the port of Salif and that he can see the lava volcano rising to the sky with the naked eye, should be noted that the island of Saba, which was signed by the volcanic eruption completely free of the population.



    Global Sulfur Dioxide Monitoring Home Page http://so2.gsfc.nasa.gov/


    Latest Daily (OMI) Images of SO2


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    Re: Global Volcano Watch

    Post  Carol on Tue Dec 20, 2011 11:10 am


    http://www.yobserver.com/local-news/10021711.html
    Volcano erupts in Yemen spewing lava- a first for the region says locals
    December 20, 2011 – YEMEN – A volcano erupted near Saba Island in the Red Sea on Monday, said fishermen from Salif port city in the west of Yemen. The fishermen confirmed that the volcano erupted near Saba Island one of the Al-Zubair archipelago small Islands located 30 nautical miles away if Salif city. The fishermen said that the volcano can be seen 3 hours away from its center and that it has been popping up red lava that reached 20-30 meters high. The fishermen said this was the first volcano they ever seen in the region. –Yobserver


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    Re: Global Volcano Watch

    Post  Carol on Thu Dec 22, 2011 6:18 am




    http://www.jonfr.com/volcano/?p=1947
    Bárðarbunga: more seismic unrest at another one of Iceland’s large volcanoes
    December 21, 2011 - During the night there was an small earthquake swarm in Bárðarbunga volcano. The largest earthquake in this earthquake swarm was ML3.04 in magnitude. It had the depth of 8.5 km. This might have been a n dike intrusion. But it is hard to know that for sure at the moment. This earthquake swarm only lasted for an about 2 to 3 hours before it stopped.

    The earthquake swarm also did appear clearly on the tremor plots on the SIL stations that are close to Bárðarbunga volcano. The second set of spikes there are from Hamarinn volcano. Copyright of this picture belongs to Iceland Meteorological Office.

    The next series of eruptions at Bardarbunga could of course happen anywhere, but the recent earthquakes indicate that an eruption could take place in a similar location to in the 18th Century. There are signs that magma is rising at great depth underneath the Bardarbunga volcanic centre. A future eruption under the glacier would be accompanied by a jökulhlaup, most likely in Kreppa and Jokulsa a Fjollum. The volcano is capable of producing a VEI6 eruption. Tephra would also likely be produced – possibly in large quantities. There are also other possibilities, for example an eruption in the southern part of the system, but for now geologists at the Icelandic Meteorological Office are stressing that the earthquakes do not mean that an eruption is imminent. –Ice News February 19, 2011

    The stratovolcano of Bárðarbunga, with its 2009 meters in height, is not only Iceland’s second highest mountain, but it is also part of Iceland’s largest volcanic system (Iceland East Volcanic Zone or EVZ) which extends for more than 200 kilometers and which includes also the nearby Grimsvötn — direct interaction among these two volcanoes is believed to exist. Bárðarbunga’s crater, measuring 70 square kilometers in width and 700 in depth, is entirely covered in ice, making observation of seismic phenomena in the area more difficult. Although sustained activity has been frequently noted, eruptions are quite rare, making this volcano relatively lesser known. The last eruptive episode of Bárðarbunga took place in 1903, but the last major outbreak dates back to 1477. This infamous event produced the largest known lava flow — more than 21 cubic kilometers in volume — of the past 10,000 years. –Iceland Chronicles http://icelandchronicles.com/2011/02/barðarbunga-volcano-at-risk-of-eruption/


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    Re: Global Volcano Watch

    Post  Carol on Mon Dec 26, 2011 8:41 pm

    Geologists warn Philippine’s Mount Bulusan volcano becoming increasingly restive
    http://www.journal.com.ph/index.php/news/provincial/20339-mt-bulusan-is-restive
    December 26, 2011 – PHILIPPINES – Mt. Bulusan has been showing signs of abnormal activity these past two weeks. The Philippine Institute of Volcanology and SeismologyDirector Renato Solidum said at least 10 quakes were felt around the volcano. Solidum said they noted changes in the form of soil around Mt. Bulusan. Phivolcs warned of possible ash explosion and advised residents to observe the four-kilometer radius permanent danger zone around the mountain. The agency advised the Civil Aviation Authority of the Philippines to tell their pilots to avoid flying near the volcano. –Journal




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    Re: Global Volcano Watch

    Post  Carol on Mon Dec 26, 2011 8:45 pm

    Recent Kilauea Status Reports, Updates, and Information Releases
    http://volcanoes.usgs.gov/hvo/activity/kilaueastatus.php
    HAWAIIAN VOLCANO OBSERVATORY DAILY UPDATE
    Monday, December 26, 2011 7:39 AM HST (Monday, December 26, 2011 17:39 UTC)
    This report on the status of Kilauea volcanic activity, in addition to maps, photos, and Webcam images (available using the menu bar above), was prepared by the USGS Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO). Hawai`i Volcanoes National Park status can be found at http://www.nps.gov/havo/ or 985-6000. All times are Hawai`i Standard Time.

    KILAUEA VOLCANO (CAVW #1302-01-)
    19°25'16" N 155°17'13" W, Summit Elevation 4091 ft (1247 m)
    Current Volcano Alert Level: WATCH
    Current Aviation Color Code: ORANGE


    Activity Summary for past 24 hours: The eruptions of Kilauea Volcano were stable. The West Ka`ili`ili ocean entry continued to be active fed by flows from Pu`u `O`o through the abandoned Royal Gardens subdivision and across the coastal plain. Glow could be seen from a source within Pu`u `O`o crater. At the summit, lava lake levels were stable. Overall seismic tremor levels were low and gas emissions were elevated.

    Past 24 hours at Kilauea summit: The summit tilt network recorded continued DI inflation with DI deflation starting at 6:30 am this morning. The summit GPS network recorded no significant recent changes. The lava lake level rose with inflation and will probably recede as DI deflation continues. A small amount of ash-sized tephra dominated by fresh spatter that was wafted within the gas plume from the summit vent and deposited on nearby surfaces. The most recent (preliminary) sulfur dioxide emission rate measurement was 900 tonnes/day on December 20, 2011.

    Seismic tremor levels were fairly stable. Three earthquakes were strong enough to be located beneath Kilauea volcano: two deep quakes west of the southwest rift zone and one on south flank faults.

    Background: The summit lava lake is deep within a ~150 m (500 ft) diameter cylindrical vent with nearly vertical sides inset within the east wall and floor of Halema`uma`u Crater. Its level fluctuates from about 70 m to more than 150 m (out of sight) below the floor of Halema`uma`u Crater. The vent has been mostly active since opening with a small explosive event on March 19, 2008. Most recently, the lava level of the lake has remained below an inner ledge (75 m or 250 ft below the floor of Halema`uma`u Crater) and responded to summit tilt changes with the lake receding during deflation and rising during inflation.

    Past 24 hours at the middle east rift zone vents: The lava flow to the ocean was stable. Within Pu`u `O`o crater, frequent glow could be seen from the small spatter cones on the east and south edges of Pu`u `O`o crater floor. The tiltmeter on the north flank of Pu`u `O`o recorded inflation. Seismic tremor levels near Pu`u `O`o were low. The most recent (preliminary) sulfur dioxide emission rate measurement was 500 tonnes/day on December 21, 2011, from all east rift zone sources.

    Lava continued to enter the tube system on the east flank of Pu`u `O`o; the tube system turns to the southeast 0.5 km, and again at 2 km, downslope. Lava flows continued to be active through this morning down the pali, across coastal plain, and into the ocean at the West Ka`ili`ili lava delta within Hawai`i Volcanoes National Park (see map); the tube appeared to be more robust with less surface flow activity and weak-to-moderate plumes being generated at the ocean entry. The branch eastward along the base of the pali appeared rejuvenated overnight.


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