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by S Sinha - Cited by 8 - Related articles
Jul 7, 2009 – Fabrication of nanoparticles using bacteria ..... production, tetragonal barium titanate (BaTiO3) ...... Journal of Colloid and Interface Science ...
As nanotechnology is emerging as an interdisciplinary field with potential to influence various aspects of human life through a myriad of applications, biological synthesis of nanomaterials is gaining particular attention as a rapidly growing discipline of Bio-nanotechnology with an enormous application potential in the coming future , . There has been a strong interest in developing environmentally benign protocols for biological synthesis of nanomaterials that do not involve toxic chemicals in synthesis process. As demonstrated previously by our group and others –, this has been successfully achieved by biological synthesis of various metal (Au –, Ag –, and Pt ), metal oxide (silica –, titania , zirconia , magnetite – and barium titanate ), and metal sulphide (CdS, and Fe2S3 ) nanoparticles by using prokaryotic as well as eukaryotic organisms including bacteria –,–, , , , fungi –, –, –, , and plants , , . However, among various organisms studied until to date, prokaryotes remain the choice of organism for biological synthesis of nanomaterials–, –, , , . This is predominantly because prokaryotes offer well-defined advantages over eukaryotic organisms such as easy handling, ease of downstream processing and ease of genetic manipulation.
Morganella morganii is a species of Gram-negative bacillus bacteria
Key to developing thin-film capacitor materials with higher energy storage capacity is the ability to uniformly disperse nanoparticles in as high a density as possible throughout the polymer matrix. However, nanoparticles such as barium titanate tend to form aggregates that reduce the ability of the nanocomposite to resist electrical breakdown. Other research groups have tried to address the dispersal issue with a variety of surface coatings, but those coatings tended to come off during processing – or to create materials compatibility issues.
The Georgia Tech research team decided to address the issue by using organic phosphonic acids to encapsulate the particles. The tailored organic phosphonic acid ligands, designed and synthesized by a research group headed by Seth Marder – a professor in the Georgia Tech School of Chemistry and Biochemistry – provide a robust coating for the particles, which range in size from 30 to 120 nanometers in diameter.
“Phosphonic acids bind very well to barium titanate and to other related metal oxides,” Perry said. “The choice of that material and ligands were very effective in allowing us to take the tailored phosphonic acids, put them onto the barium titanate, and then with the correct solution processing, to incorporate them into polymer systems. This allowed us to provide good compatibility with the polymer hosts – and thus very good dispersion as evidenced by a three- to four-fold decrease in the average aggregate size.”
Though large crystals of barium titanate could also provide a high dielectric constant, they generally do not provide adequate resistance to breakdown – and their formation and growth can be complex and require high temperatures. Composites provide the necessary electrical properties, along with the advantages of solution-based processing techniques.
New view of bacteria-mineral interface to advance bioremediation
Source: Idaho National E & E Laboratory
Posted Tuesday, December 11, 2001
Researchers studying the feasibility of in situ bioremediation have a new tool for their analytical arsenal. The Department of Energy's Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) can now precisely map mineral crystals and bacterial growth on basalt using a customized laser imaging Fourier transform mass spectrometer.
In the first reported application of imaging Fourier transform mass spectrometry (FTMS) to the field of biogeochemistry, INEEL researchers created high-resolution pseudo-images showing the arrangement of minerals within basalt and bacterial growth on the rock surface.
Researchers need to better understand why some microbes are attracted to specific minerals before they can effectively harness microbial populations for bioremediation.
The technique creates highly reproducible two-dimensional maps of the bacterial-mineral interface, providing critical information about bacterial metabolism. Researchers can also create three-dimensional images (depth profiles) by stacking the maps.
Beryllium ( /bəˈrɪliəm/ bə-ril-ee-əm) is the chemical element with the symbol Be and atomic number 4. Because any beryllium synthesized in stars is short-lived, it is a relatively rare element in both the universe and in the crust of the Earth. It is a divalent element which occurs naturally only in combination with other elements in minerals. Notable gemstones which contain beryllium include beryl (aquamarine, emerald) and chrysoberyl. As a free element it is a steel-gray, strong, lightweight and brittle alkaline earth metal.
Beryllium increases hardness and resistance to corrosion when alloyed to aluminium, cobalt, copper (notably beryllium copper), iron and nickel. In structural applications, high flexural rigidity, thermal stability, thermal conductivity and low density (1.85 times that of water) make beryllium a qualityaerospace material for high-speed aircraft, missiles, space vehicles and communication satellites. Because of its low density and atomic mass, beryllium is relatively transparent to X-rays and other forms of ionizing radiation; therefore, it is the most common window material for X-ray equipment and in particle physics experiments. The high thermal conductivities of beryllium and beryllium oxide have led to their use in heat transport and heat sinking applications.
The commercial use of beryllium metal presents technical challenges due to the toxicity (especially by inhalation) of beryllium-containing dusts. Beryllium is corrosive to tissue, and can cause a chronic life-threatening allergic disease called berylliosis in some people. The element is not known to be necessary or useful for either plant or animal life.
Beryllium is a steel gray and hard metal that is brittle at room temperature and has a close-packed hexagonal crystal structure. It has exceptional flexural rigidity (Young's modulus 287 GPa) and a reasonably high melting point. The modulus of elasticity of beryllium is approximately 50% greater than that of steel. The combination of this modulus and a relatively low density results in an unusually fast sound conduction speed in beryllium – about 12.9 km/s atambient conditions. Other significant properties are high specific heat (1925 J·kg−1·K−1) and thermal conductivity (216 W·m−1·K−1), which make beryllium the metal with the best heat dissipation characteristics per unit weight. In combination with the relatively low coefficient of linear thermal expansion(11.4×10−6 K−1), these characteristics result in a unique stability under conditions of thermal loading.
Beryllium has a large scattering cross section for high-energy neutrons, about 6 barns for energies above ~0.01 eV. Therefore, it effectively slows the neutrons to the thermal energy range of below 0.03 eV, where the total cross section is at least an order of magnitude lower – exact value strongly depends on the purity and size of the crystallites in the material. The predominant beryllium isotope 9Be also undergoes a (n,2n) neutron reaction to 8Be, which then instantaneously breaks into two alpha particles; that is, beryllium is a neutron multiplier, releasing more neutrons than it absorbs. This nuclear reaction is:
Be + n → 2(
He) + 2n
As a metal, beryllium is transparent to most wavelengths of X-rays and gamma rays, making it useful for the output windows of X-ray tubes and other such apparatus. It is also a good source for the relatively-small numbers of free neutrons in the laboratory which are liberated when beryllium nuclei are struck by energetic alpha particles producing the nuclear reaction
C + n , where
He is an alpha particle and
C is a carbon-12 nucleus.
Both stable and unstable isotopes of beryllium are created in stars, but these do not last long. It is believed that most of the stable beryllium in the universe was created when cosmic rays induced fission in heavier elements found in interstellar gas and dust.
Plot showing variations in solar activity, including variation in 10Be concentration. Note that the beryllium scale is inverted, so increases on this scale indicate lower 10Be levels
Beryllium contains only one stable isotope, 9Be, and therefore is a monoisotopic element.Cosmogenic 10Be is produced in the atmosphere of the Earth by the cosmic ray spallation ofoxygen. 10Be accumulates at the soil surface, where its relatively long half-life (1.36 million years) permits a long residence time before decaying to boron-10. Thus, 10Be and its daughter products are used to examine natural soil erosion, soil formation and the development of lateritic soils, and as a proxy for measurement of the variations in solar activity and the age of ice cores.
The production of 10Be is inversely proportional to solar activity, because increased solar windduring periods of high solar activity decreases the flux of galactic cosmic rays that reach the Earth. Nuclear explosions also form 10Be by the reaction of fast neutrons with 13C in the carbon dioxide in air. This is one of the indicators of past activity at nuclear weapon test sites.
The isotope 7Be (half-life 53 days) is also cosmogenic, and shows an atmospheric abundance linked to sunspots much like 10Be. 8Be has a very short half-life of about 7×10−17 s that contributes to its significant cosmological role, as elements heavier than beryllium could not have been produced by nuclear fusion in the Big Bang. This is due to the lack of sufficient time during the Big Bang's nucleosynthesis phase to produce carbon by the fusion of 4He nuclei and the very low concentrations of available beryllium-8. The British astronomer Sir Fred Hoyle first showed that the energy levels of 8Be and 12C allow carbon production by the so-called triple-alpha process in helium-fueled stars where more nucleosynthesis time is available, thus making creation of carbon-based life possible from the gas and dust ejected by supernovae (see also Big Bang nucleosynthesis).
The innermost electrons of beryllium may contribute to chemical bonding. Therefore, when 7Be decays by electron capture, it does so by taking electrons from atomic orbitals that may participate in bonding. This makes its decay rate dependent to a measurable degree upon its electron configuration – a rare occurrence in nuclear decay.
The shortest-lived known isotope of beryllium is 13Be which decays through neutron emission. It has a half-life of 2.7 × 10−21 s. 6Be is also very short-lived with a half-life of 5.0 × 10−21 s. The exotic isotopes 11Be and 14Be are known to exhibit a nuclear halo. This phenomenon can be understood as the nuclei of 11Be and 14Be have, respectively, 1 and 4 neutrons orbiting substantially outside the classical Fermi 'waterdrop' model of the nucleus
And the rest here: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Beryllium
Suppose you breath in one of those nano-particles over the years of chemtrails....
Who woud need the implanted chips?!?
You have your mobile devises right there with you eh?
It's called interface
How long before super-intelligence? Read the post scripts on the bottom for the updates