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    Pris

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    Re: FLAT GLOBE

    Post  Pris on Sat May 23, 2015 3:50 pm

    ...


    Last edited by Pris on Sat Jul 15, 2017 7:39 am; edited 1 time in total
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    Vidya Moksha

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    Re: FLAT GLOBE

    Post  Vidya Moksha on Sat May 23, 2015 4:03 pm

    burgundia wrote:
    Carol wrote:This is what I wonder about: GOOGLE TO DELIST YOUR WEB SITE WITH THEIR NEW SEARCH PRIORITIZING ALGORITHMS THAT USE "ACCURACY" AS A PARAMETER. THIS IS THE ONLY REASON.
    Can someone explain to me what it means?

    Google has to prioritise the sites that it lists when it returns the answers to the typed query/ search...I presume that google will now look through web sites and if the site contains something that Google considers to be untrue or inaccurate or fraudulent then it will either demote that site in its return list, or it will ignore that web site altogether and not include it in its search results...

    so the implication and suggestion made by Jim Stone is that if the term 'flat earth' is used then it will flag against that web site and google will ignore it in its search results...so peeps wont see the mists of avalon in search results if we use the term flat earth...

    if this is true then the list will be much longer than just 'flat earth'


    also.. use duckduckgo anyway, so what dos it matter?
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    burgundia

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    Re: FLAT GLOBE

    Post  burgundia on Sun May 24, 2015 9:28 am

    thanks for the explanation.
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    Vidya Moksha

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    Re: FLAT GLOBE

    Post  Vidya Moksha on Sat May 30, 2015 7:44 am

    I have just noticed (been offline) that the name of this thread has been changed! Thats just plain silly, change it back to flat earth..

    google havent come up with their new search engine yet (called hummingbird) and given whats posted in the mists flat earth is the least of the issues...

    a bit more about the new truth algorithm's here:
    http://www.makeuseof.com/tag/can-google-use-algorithm-determine-truth/
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    mudra

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    Re: FLAT GLOBE

    Post  mudra on Sat May 30, 2015 12:55 pm

    Vidya Moksha wrote:I have just noticed (been offline) that the name of this thread has been changed! Thats just plain silly, change it back to flat earth..

    google havent come up with their new search engine yet (called hummingbird) and given whats posted in the mists flat earth is the least of the issues...

    a bit more about the new truth algorithm's here:
    http://www.makeuseof.com/tag/can-google-use-algorithm-determine-truth/

    The Flat Earth thing was already a brain storm to me but Flat " Globe " that is even worse Wink

    Love from me
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    mudra

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    Re: FLAT GLOBE

    Post  mudra on Sun May 31, 2015 9:26 am

    A very good video I found in addition to my Walter Russell post : Evolution of mass from plane to sphere: http://www.themistsofavalon.net/t7814p135-flat-globe#110583

    How matter comes into form.

    Weaving Patterns - Walter Russell geometry

    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=aHAQxb9JGxQ


    Love Always
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    Seashore

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    Re: FLAT GLOBE

    Post  Seashore on Fri Jun 05, 2015 7:57 am

    From spherebeingalliance.com FAQ:

    Is the earth a sphere or is it flat?

    The "Earth" and ALL other Planet's and Moon's that I observed from orbit and visited while assigned to the Research Vessel I was assigned to were "Spherical".

    http://spherebeingalliance.com/faqs
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    burgundia

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    Re: FLAT GLOBE

    Post  burgundia on Sat Jun 06, 2015 1:59 am

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    burgundia

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    Re: FLAT GLOBE

    Post  burgundia on Sun Jun 07, 2015 2:25 am

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    burgundia

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    Re: FLAT GLOBE

    Post  burgundia on Sun Jun 07, 2015 8:48 am

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    burgundia

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    Re: FLAT GLOBE

    Post  burgundia on Sun Jun 07, 2015 5:58 pm

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    burgundia

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    Re: FLAT GLOBE

    Post  burgundia on Wed Jun 10, 2015 9:33 am

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    burgundia

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    Re: FLAT GLOBE

    Post  burgundia on Fri Jun 12, 2015 4:01 pm

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    burgundia

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    Re: FLAT GLOBE

    Post  burgundia on Thu Jul 02, 2015 3:31 pm

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    Seashore

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    Re: FLAT GLOBE

    Post  Seashore on Thu Jul 16, 2015 6:54 am

    This video is an interview of Jeremy Rys, who is "AlienScientist" on YouTube.  Here's the Description:

    Published on Apr 16, 2015

    We are joined by physicist Jeremy Rys to discuss why the earth is not flat and is indeed round.

    Jeremy Rys is a physicist, researcher and media producer who runs the website Alien Scientist as well as the popular Youtube channel that puts forth a rational approach to Fringe Science, Aliens, and Conspiracy Theories.



    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=czMKMBnr54Y
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    Vidya Moksha

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    Re: FLAT GLOBE

    Post  Vidya Moksha on Thu Jul 16, 2015 7:07 am

    Seashore wrote:This video is an interview of Jeremy Rys, who is "AlienScientist" on YouTube.  Here's the Description:

    Published on Apr 16, 2015

    We are joined by physicist Jeremy Rys to discuss why the earth is not flat and is indeed round.

    Jeremy Rys is a physicist, researcher and media producer who runs the website Alien Scientist as well as the popular Youtube channel that puts forth a rational approach to Fringe Science, Aliens, and Conspiracy Theories.

    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=czMKMBnr54Y

    I can watch this, and will. I have pretty much come to the conclusion that the flat earth is some kind of fraudulent concept, perhaps perpetrated by those wishing to prove the bible quotes as accurate.

    I have posted several valid observations to a few folk spouting these ideas, explaining why their 'proof' of a flat earth is no proof at all, but they dont want to hear it.

    I still cant shake this notion that the earth doesnt spin, but I have heard enough of the flat earth stuff, and am not convinced at all.
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    Seashore

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    Re: FLAT GLOBE

    Post  Seashore on Thu Jul 16, 2015 11:43 am

    Vidya Moksha wrote:I can watch this, and will. I have pretty much come to the conclusion that the flat earth is some kind of fraudulent concept, perhaps perpetrated by those wishing to prove the bible quotes as accurate.
    Eric Dubay has mentioned that he was the black sheep of his family because they were fundamentalist Christians and he wouldn't accept that.  But he felt that he could redeem himself somewhat by validating certain things in the Bible.

    I think that it may be that he has uncovered some flaws in mainstream science, however.  For example he says the moon does produce its own light, of a different kind.  (I hope I'm saying that right.)  Maybe he's right.  I do know there is a long list of "anomalies" for the moon.  That means mainstream science isn't complete.

    I wish you could get an answer to the spiinning earth.
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    Vidya Moksha

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    Re: FLAT GLOBE

    Post  Vidya Moksha on Thu Jul 16, 2015 2:32 pm

    Seashore wrote:
    Vidya Moksha wrote:I can watch this, and will. I have pretty much come to the conclusion that the flat earth is some kind of fraudulent concept, perhaps perpetrated by those wishing to prove the bible quotes as accurate.
    Eric Dubay has mentioned that he was the black sheep of his family because they were fundamentalist Christians and he wouldn't accept that.  But he felt that he could redeem himself somewhat by validating certain things in the Bible.

    I think that it may be that he has uncovered some flaws in mainstream science, however.  For example he says the moon does produce its own light, of a different kind.  (I hope I'm saying that right.)  Maybe he's right.  I do know there is a long list of "anomalies" for the moon.  That means mainstream science isn't complete.

    I wish you could get an answer to the spiinning earth.

    there are many anomalies with the moon, it might even be a spaceship? but that doesnt make the earth flat. Reflected light is cool, all solar architects know this, its a way of getting light into a house without getting heat as well. It doesnt make sense that the moon is self illuminating.

    there are many flaws in mainstream science and astronomy, many points that are raised by the flat earth crew are valid, nasa has faked so much footage its funny.. but again this doesnt make the earth flat.
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    burgundia

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    Re: FLAT GLOBE

    Post  burgundia on Tue Jul 28, 2015 3:32 pm

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    burgundia

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    Re: FLAT GLOBE

    Post  burgundia on Tue Jul 28, 2015 4:09 pm

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    burgundia

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    Re: FLAT GLOBE

    Post  burgundia on Sat Sep 26, 2015 1:45 pm

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    Seashore

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    Re: FLAT GLOBE

    Post  Seashore on Mon Oct 19, 2015 7:56 am

    I like the perspective of researcher Freeman.  I think he has an aptitude for science and technology and detecting conspiracy and deception.  

    For those who have never heard of Freeman, here is his statement regarding his biography:

    Freeman, host of FreemanTV.com, has been on the forefront of conspiracy theory for nearly two decades. Freeman created the first documentary on HAARP and televised the first documentary on chemtrails. He's been honored by the Mayan shamans and blessed by the King of Bungalung while enlightening the world on the occult aspects of Hollywood, technology, and politics with his TV show the Freeman Perspective. Freeman has lectured around the world and he unveils the inner-workings of secret societies such as, the Freemasons and shows you the direction this New World is going. Freeman starts where Alex Jones leaves off. In the spirit of David Icke and James Redfield, Freeman illustrates a world that is both cosmic and miraculous. He presents hope displayed in the creative spirit of humanity.

    http://freemantv.com/bio/
     
    In the following video Freeman interviews someone I’ve never heard of before – Jeffrey Grupp.  And here’s his statement regarding his biography:

    I am a retired professional philosopher and university lecturer in philosophy. I am also an author, an amateur poet, amateur painter and sculptor, musician (didgeridoo and drums), and amateur anthropologist (specializing in study of aboriginal groups and shamanism). Politically I am Thoreavian/primitivist (see my research on that topic), and religiously I am a Christian. I live near Ann Arbor, Michigan.

    http://greensolipsist.com/about-2/


    In the video Freeman states that he likes to admit what he doesn’t know, and that none of us have been out in space and can know whether or not the world is round.

    At 14:48, Jeffrey states that both heliocentricism and geocentrism are verifiable.  

    Now, one thing that I have reservations about is that Jeffrey links his interest in the flat earth theory to his becoming a Christian.  That is very much like Eric Dubay and his trying to gain acceptance as the black sheep in a fundamentalist family.  It’s a red flag.

    Anyway, Jeffrey talks about light refraction in Earth’s atmosphere, and radar and surveying mathematics.  He is starting from scratch and searching for the truth about the shape of the Earth.  

    He’s got his own YouTube channel “Zeteticism DotCom”:

    Empirical (zetetic) analysis of the Flat Earth and dohmology (sky dome studies)

    PLEASE NOTE: Zeteticism Vol. 1 is being redone because of a new finding, and in order to explain light refraction better.

    https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCjb1EUArFz4m8atP1MYSIqQ/about

    I love it when people do their own analysis of what their eyes and intuition tell them.  I think this is a fun interview:



    My conclusion:  If humanity ever gets to the point where we can discuss things without ridiculing each other, we’ll figure it out together, with the tool the internet as a communication device.
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    Seashore

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    Re: FLAT GLOBE

    Post  Seashore on Sat Nov 07, 2015 8:21 am

    Vidya Moksha wrote:So I always thought we were being lied to and in fact the earth wasnt rotating.

    I'm watching the documentary The Great Year for the second time right now, putting it on pause periodically to do searches online.

    I just stumbled upon an Eric Dubay quote that brought up to me again my fascination with his debate skills.  I have to say he gets down to earth in his approach, and I wish there were someone from mainstream science with a respectful attitude who would address all of Eric's points:

    Foucault Pendulum (Flat Earth)

    "In the mid 19th century a Frenchman named Léon Foucault became famous for swinging pendulums and claiming their consequent motions were proof of the Earth’s diurnal rotation. Since then “Foucault Pendulums” have regularly been swinging at museums and exposition halls worldwide purporting to provide everlasting perpetual proof of the heliocentric spinning ball-Earth theory. The truth is, however, unbeknownst to most of the duped public, that Foucault’s pendulum is a failed experiment which proves nothing but how easy it is for pseudo-science to deceive the malleable masses.  To begin with, Foucault’s pendulums do not uniformly swing in any one direction. Sometimes they rotate clockwise and sometimes counter-clockwise, sometimes they fail to rotate and sometimes they rotate far too much. Scientists who have repeated variations of the experiment have conceded time and again that “it was difficult to avoid giving the pendulum some slight lateral bias at starting.” The behavior of the pendulum actually depends on 1) the initial force beginning its swing and, 2) the ball-and-socket joint used which most-readily facilitates circular motion over any other. The supposed rotation of the Earth is completely inconsequential and irrelevant to the pendulum’s swing. If the alleged constant rotation of the Earth affected pendulums in any way, then there should be no need to manually start pendulums in motion! If the Earth’s diurnal rotation caused the 360 degree uniform diurnal rotation of pendulums, then there should not exist a stationary pendulum anywhere on Earth!"-- Eric Dubay

    http://www.whale.to/c/foucault_pendulum.html
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    shiloh

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    Re: FLAT GLOBE

    Post  shiloh on Sat Nov 07, 2015 10:52 am

    Curvature Radii and Pi

    Briefly, all electromagnetic radiation or EMR as the universal mode of data transmission is created by the 'Acceleration of Electric Charges', such as the proton fusion in stars into helium emitting EMR in their centripetal acceleration of the Coulomb charges of say the electron (-) and the proton(+).
    It is because of this reducibility of All EMR to this property of matter, that the notion of a 'spirit' is dismissed by the terrestrial physicists and scientists in general. If all things, including light and all forms of the intergalactic medium are a consequence of the acceleration of electric charges and those charges are ALWAYS associated with matter and mass carrying particles and waves, then the Quantum Big Bang must alse be a consequence of matter as its prerequisite parameter to bring a physical universe into existence.

    The 'Cosmic Secret of the ETs' is that the EMR has a parentage and this is the EMMR and this is what the 'spirit' is. The EMMR is matter independent and it is technically defined in the "Acceleration of Magnetic Charges', which are defined in a higher dimensional form of 'Monopolar Wormhole Radiation' or the self resonance of the 'Little Serpent Abba' entwined with his as her in the 'Little Serpentina Baab' aka the heterotic supermembrane HE(8x8) and as the finalo class of the inflationary brane epoch BEFORE the physicality of matter manifested itself in the EMR of the 1st Quantum Big Bang.

    There is a 'Serpent Mapping', defining the notion of what cosmic consciousness or selfawareness are in terms of the physicality. This can also be described as a Charge-Transduction between the 11-D Black Hole Boundary and the 10-D asymptotic cosmology and this is defined in the parameters of a lower dimensional quantum universe and as say defined in the size of the classical electron and its higher dimensional image, both defining a Volume multiplied by this cosmic awareness as a timedifferential and so enabling a new physical quantity, the Thuban Council labels as the 'Starcharge' or the 'Starcouloumb C*.

    The mathematical expression encapsulating this is: Magnetocharge e*=2Rec2↔ √Alpha.LPlanckc2=Electrocharge e for EMR finestructure Alpha and a absolute minimum displacement scale definied in a 'Planck-Length Oscillation' defined as the product of Alpha and this Planck-Length as the first of the superstring classes (I).

    For duality modulation between the supermembrane parts:
    Cellular Micro Wormhole lps/2p ↔ 2plss as Galactic Macro Antiwormhole

    Hyperspace inversion parameter for spacetime quantization:
    1/2p2 from Vuniverse=2p2R3=H.Vwormhole spacequantum=2p2lps3

    H is a quantization algorithmic googol counter H=ABCD=31x2423x36x1242x25x6124x46x5612 from the cosmogenesis

    lss/p = 1/plps ↔ 2ek/me = e*/e

    for the electron mass me = ke2/Rec2 = hc.alpha.e2/2pRec

    This allows an approximation for the transcendental number p in terms of the magnetocharge-electrocharge mapping transformation relative to the empirical measurements of the mass-inertia coupled electron in terms of its Coulomb charge 'e' and its classical electron diameter 2Re by:

    p = lsse/e* = lsse/2Rec2={e/2Re}/lpsc2

    The ratio pspherical/p = sinq/q then shows the deviation of the Euclidean 'flat Pi' of the plane geometry relative to the 'curved' or 'spherical Pi' as a measure of the curvature of the 11-dimensional enveloping spacetime of the Riemannian Hypersphere.





    A initial Thuban approximation from the cosmogenesis is: e=½hA for A2=14x1524 as the coefficient of the Cosmic wavefunction B(n) for Re=2.778x10-15 m* with c=3x108 (m/s)*
    for p = {1.61822113x10-19/5.5555x10-15}/9x10-6~3.23644...as a 'Spherical Pi' = psinq/q for p-curvature Re=e/18px10-6~2.86164.x10-15 m* (2.856866x10-15 and for pspherical/p = sinq/q ~ 3.23644/3.14159~1.0302


    A Codata SI-approximation is: e=1.60217653x10-19 C with Re=2.817940325x10-15 m with c=2.99792458x108 m/s
    for p = {1.60217653x10-19/5.63588065x10-15}/8.987551787x10-6~3.16306...for p-curvature Re=e/18px10-6~2.8371944x10-15 m (2.841935x10-15 m*) and for pspherical/p = sinq/q ~ 3.16306/3.14159~1.0068

    A final Thuban approximation is: e=1.606456344x10-19 C* (Newton-Raphson method) for Re=2.7777...x10-15 m* with c=3x108 (m/s)*
    for p = {1.606456344x10-19/5.5555x10-15}/9x10-6~3.21291...for p-curvature Re=e/18px10-6~2.84084x10-15 m* (2.8361x10-15 m) and for pspherical/p = sinq/q ~ 3.21291/3.14159~1.0227

    As the Classical Electron radius Re is a function of the Electron mass me in terms of its relativistic 'restmass'; the mass me=meo/√(1-[v/c]2) increases in inverse proportionality with the radial size (Re) of the electron (Compton wavelength le=h/mec=Re/alpha); the dynamic Re modulates its curvature in Euclidean local spacetime with respect to the hyperspace inversion parameter of the hypersphere volumar quantisation.

    The 11D-Universe so is spheroidally positively curved around a negatively hyperbolically curved universe in 10 dimensions and fractalised in the classical electron volumar as a function of the velocity of the electron, which is binomially distributed about its electromagnetic properties.

    Details can be found in the archives of Thuban.





    Pappus's centroid theorem




    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Torus





    PHI and PI in Curved Geometries of Space


    Volume and Surface Area Dimensionality in the {√4 - ϕ -√2} interval
    by the uniqueness of the solution for the quadratic x+x=2x=x2=xx
    or f(x) = x2-2x = 0
    Mathematical Expressions and Derivations1D-Volume-Surface Area Multiplier
    4D-Volume Hypersphere of Radius RTorus=RTV4=½π2RT41/¼RTorus =4/RTorus
    V*=3D-Surface Area Hypersphere = 3D-Volume Horn TorusdV4/dRT=2π2RT3RTorus/4
    V*=3D-Volume Sphere of Radius RSphere=RSV3=4πRS3/31/⅓RSphere=3/RSphere
    2D-Surface Area SpheredV3/dRS=4πRS2RSphere/3
    √4=2.000000...the minimum geodesic value of πSpherical as a Great Circle in the periodicity of πSpherical = πsinhθ/θ with increasing curved diameter
    1/{∑1/r-ln(n)}=1/{Euler's Number 'Little Gamma γ' summing from n=1 to ∞}=1/{0.577215664...}=1/{1/1+1/2+1/3+1/4+...+1/n - ln(n)}=1.732454...
    √3=1.732050...
    lim{δFeigenbaum}Max={3π/2}= 1.676539...
    lim{δFeigenbaum}3D={4.6692016091...}= 1.671401...
    ϕ= ½(√5+1) =1/( ½(√5-1) = 1.618033...
    lim{δFeigenbaum}Min={3π/2}¼ = 1.473364...
    √2=1.414213...
    V*/V*=1=Cuberoot{3π/2}RTorus/RSphere=Cuberoot{Chaos Constant}RTorus/RSphere
    lim{δF}Max={3π/2}~1.67654=1/0.59647= 1.61803+0.0585 for ϕ=1.61803...
    lim{δF}3D={4.6692016091...}~1.671402=1/0.59830= 1.61803+0.05337 for ϕ=1.61803...
    lim{δF}Min={3π/2}¼ ~1.47336=1/0.67872= 1.61803-0.14467 for ϕ=1.61803......
    2xGeometric Mean=2√({3π/2}⅓.{3π/2}¼)=2√({3π/2}7/12) ~3.14334 ~ πEuclidean = πHyperbolic = πsinhθ/θ for θ=0.057854 radian (3°19')
    2xArithmetic Mean={3π/2}+{3π/2}¼~3.14990 ~ πEuclidean = πHyperbolic = πsinhθ/θ for θ=0.12594 radian (7°13')
    {lim{δF}Max/lim{δF}3D}3 = {½.3π/4.6692016091...} = 1.009249...={πHyperbolic /π}3 for πHyperbolic =πsinh(0.135742)/0.135742=1.0030738π =3.1512492... for 7.777° (7°46' 39")
    {3π/2}.√({3π/2}7/12) =({3π/2}7/24+1/3)=({3π/2}5/8)~2.634970...
    2=(1.61803...)2=2.618033...=1+ϕ for relative primeness of adjacent Fibonacci elements 5 and 8 in: {0,1,1,2,3,5,8,13,...}
    Hypervolume in 4D&3D for an idealised planet Earth of Radius REarth=RE3D+4D ExtensionRTorus/4=¼RSphere/{2/3π}= RSphere/{96π}
    Curvature Radius of a sphere with radius R is 1/R for a Gaussian Curvature K measured from within the sphere as the product of K=1/RMax .1/RMin. This is always positive for positive curvature in a geometric mean √{1/R2}=1/|R|.
    For a 'pseudosphere' with Imaginary Radius iR, the Gaussian Curvature is always negative for a negative Curvature Radius measured from without the 'pseudosphere' in 1/RMax .-1/RMin. T=1/(iR)2.

    Using the Euler Identity: e = XY=X+Y =i2=cos(π)+isin(π) =-1 with Fibonacci Roots φ and 1/φ for θ=π generalised for θ: e = cosθ+isinθ and e-iθ = cosθ-isinθ for hyperbolic sin definition: sinh(iθ) =½{e- e-iθ}=isinθ and sinθ=sinh(iθ)/i=-isinh(iθ)={e- e-iθ}/2i

    πHyperbolic = Circumference/Diameter=2πiR.sin(r/iR)/2r=2πiR.sin(θ/i)/2r=πi.sin(-iθ)/θ=(πi/θ){e-iiθ- eiiθ}/2i=π{e- e-iθ}/2θ=πsin(hθ)/θ for arclength l=r=Rθ and i2=ii=-1

    More details are below in the 'Let Pi be 3' essay from Wisconsin University and referring to the scriptural approximation for Pi in Euclidean flat space of 0 curvature.


    The hypervolume for the 3D Earth, embedded in 4D hyperspace as an idealised 3D-Spheroid as a 3D-Surface Area or radial derivative of a 4-dimensional toroidal hypersphere, can so be considered to increase its 3D volume as a 'Manifold Inflation' as a function of radial displacement: RSphere/{96π}.

    For a 1000-fold inflation or magnification then the Earth's radius would be 6,706.156773.. kilometers and descriptive for the Thermosphere of the planetary atmosphere, extending from the mean radii of the earth's surface at the poles at about 6,357 km and at the equator at approximately 6,378 km in so 349 km and 328 km into radial hyperspace respectively. The International Spacestation orbits between 320 km and 380 km at a height also characteristic for communication satellites.

    Daniel 7:10
    A fiery stream issued and came forth from before him: thousand thousands ministered unto him, and ten thousand times ten thousand stood before him: the judgment was set, and the books were opened.

    Jude 1:14
    And Enoch also, the seventh from Adam, prophesied of these, saying, Behold, the Lord cometh with ten thousands of his saints,

    Revelation 5:11
    And I beheld, and I heard the voice of many angels round about the throne and the beasts and the elders: and the number of them was ten thousand times ten thousand, and thousands of thousands;

    Revelation 9:16
    And the number of the army of the horsemen were two hundred thousand thousand: and I heard the number of them.

    7,000,000,000 + 200,000,000 = 7,200,000,000 = 144,000 x 50,000 = Old Humanoid + New Humanoid (Starhuman ET) = Starplanetary Genome Distribution













    The hypervolume for the 3D Earth, embedded in 4D hyperspace as an idealised 3D-Spheroid as a 3D-Surface Area or radial derivative of a 4-dimensional toroidal hypersphere, can so be considered to increase its 3D volume as a 'Manifold Inflation' as a function of radial displacement: RSphere/{96π}.
    For a 1000-fold inflation or magnification then the Earth's radius would be 6,706.156773.. kilometers and descriptive for the Thermosphere of the planetary atmosphere, extending from the mean radii of the earth's surface at the poles at about 6,357 km and at the equator at approximately 6,378 km in so 349 km and 328 km into radial hyperspace respectively. The International Spacestation orbits between 320 km and 380 km at a height also characteristic for communication satellites.

    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thermosphere


    The Collapse of the Thermosphere
    By Dr. Tony Phillips - Jul 20, 2010


    New research shows that the outermost layer of the atmosphere will lose 3 percent of its density over the coming decade, a sign of the far-reaching impacts of greenhouse gas emissions. As the density declines, orbiting satellites experience less drag.


    Illustration ©UCAR NASA-funded researchers are monitoring a big event in our planet’s atmosphere. High above Earth’s surface where the atmosphere meets space, a rarefied layer of gas called "the thermosphere" recently collapsed and now is rebounding again.
    "This is the biggest contraction of the thermosphere in at least 43 years," says John Emmert of the Naval Research Lab, lead author of a paper announcing the finding in the June 19th issue of the Geophysical Research Letters (GRL). "It’s a Space Age record."



    The collapse happened during the deep solar minimum of 2008-2009—a fact which comes as little surprise to researchers. The thermosphere always cools and contracts when solar activity is low. In this case, however, the magnitude of the collapse was two to three times greater than low solar activity could explain. "Something is going on that we do not understand," says Emmert.

    The thermosphere ranges in altitude from 90 km to 600+ km. It is a realm of meteors, auroras and satellites, which skim through the thermosphere as they circle Earth. It is also where solar radiation makes first contact with our planet. The thermosphere intercepts extreme ultraviolet (EUV) photons from the Sun before they can reach the ground. When solar activity is high, solar EUV warms the thermosphere, causing it to puff up like a marshmallow held over a camp fire. (This heating can raise temperatures as high as 1400 K—hence the name thermosphere.)
    When solar activity is low, the opposite happens. Lately, solar activity has been very low. In 2008 and 2009, the Sun plunged into a century-class solar minimum. Sunspots were scarce, solar flares almost non-existent, and solar EUV radiation was at a low ebb. Researchers immediately turned their attention to the thermosphere to see what would happen. How do you know what’s happening all the way up in the thermosphere?


    Layers of Earth’s upper atmosphere. Credit: John Emmert/NRL - See more at: http://www.astrobio.net/topic/solar...pse-of-the-thermosphere/#sthash.S0LXw9Jh.dpuf


    Emmert uses a clever technique: Because satellites feel aerodynamic drag when they move through the thermosphere, it is possible to monitor conditions there by watching satellites decay. He analyzed the decay rates of more than 5000 satellites ranging in altitude between 200 and 600 km and ranging in time between 1967 and 2010. This provided a unique space-time sampling of thermospheric density, temperature, and pressure covering almost the entire Space Age.
    In this way he discovered that the thermospheric collapse of 2008-2009 was not only bigger than any previous collapse, but also bigger than the Sun alone could explain. One possible explanation is carbon dioxide (CO2). When carbon dioxide gets into the thermosphere, it acts as a coolant, shedding heat via infrared radiation. It is widely-known that CO2 levels have been increasing in Earth’s atmosphere.

    Extra CO2 in the thermosphere could have magnified the cooling action of solar minimum. "But the numbers don’t quite add up," says Emmert. "Even when we take CO2 into account using our best understanding of how it operates as a coolant, we cannot fully explain the thermosphere’s collapse." - See more at: http://www.astrobio.net/topic/solar...pse-of-the-thermosphere/#sthash.S0LXw9Jh.dpuf


    Image of an ‘eruptive prominence’ on the Sun captured in March of 2004 by the SOHO spacecraft. Energy from the Sun has a profound effect on our planet’s biosphere. Credit: SOHO - See more at: http://www.astrobio.net/topic/solar...pse-of-the-thermosphere/#sthash.S0LXw9Jh.dpuf

    According to Emmert and colleagues, low solar EUV accounts for about 30% of the collapse. Extra CO2 accounts for at least another 10%. That leaves as much as 60% unaccounted for. In their GRL paper, the authors acknowledge that the situation is complicated. There’s more to it than just solar EUV and terrestrial CO2. For instance, trends in global climate could alter the composition of the thermosphere, changing its thermal properties and the way it responds to external stimuli.
    The overall sensitivity of the thermosphere to solar radiation could actually be increasing. "The density anomalies," they wrote, "may signify that an as-yet-unidentified climatological tipping point involving energy balance and chemistry feedbacks has been reached."

    Or not. Important clues may be found in the way the thermosphere rebounds. Solar minimum is now coming to an end, EUV radiation is on the rise, and the thermosphere is puffing up again. Exactly how the recovery proceeds could unravel the contributions of solar vs. terrestrial sources. "We will continue to monitor the situation," says Emmert.

    Based on a science@NASA news release - See more at: http://www.astrobio.net/topic/solar...pse-of-the-thermosphere/#sthash.S0LXw9Jh.dpuf

    Quiet Sun Means Cooling of Earth's Upper Atmosphere

    Published by Matt on Fri Dec 18, 2009 2:36 pm via: NASA


    New measurements from a NASA satellite show a dramatic cooling in the upper atmosphere that correlates with the declining phase of the current solar cycle. For the first time, researchers can show a timely link between the Sun and the climate of Earth’s thermosphere, the region above 100 km, an essential step in making accurate predictions of climate change in the high atmosphere.

    Scientists from NASA’s Langley Research Center and Hampton University in Hampton, Va., and the National Center for Atmospheric Research in Boulder, Colo., presented these results at the fall meeting of the American Geophysical Union in San Francisco from Dec. 14 to 18.






    Data from the TIMED (Thermosphere Ionosphere Mesosphere Energetics and Dynamics) mission are being used to understand the climate of the upper atmosphere. Credit: NASA
    Earth’s thermosphere and mesosphere have been the least explored regions of the atmosphere. The NASA Thermosphere-Ionosphere-Mesosphere Energetics and Dynamics (TIMED) mission was developed to explore the Earth’s atmosphere above 60 km altitude and was launched in December 2001. One of four instruments on the TIMED mission, the Sounding of the Atmosphere using Broadband Emission Radiometry (SABER) instrument, was specifically designed to measure the energy budget of the mesosphere and lower thermosphere. The SABER dataset now covers eight years of data and has already provided some basic insight into the heat budget of the thermosphere on a variety of timescales.
    The extent of current solar minimum conditions has created a unique situation for recent SABER datasets, explains Stan Solomon, acting director of the High Altitude Observatory, National Center for Atmospheric Research in Boulder, Colo. The end of solar cycle 23 has offered an opportunity to study the radiative cooling in the thermosphere under exceptionally quiescent conditions.
    “The Sun is in a very unusual period,” said Marty Mlynczak, SABER associate principal investigator and senior research scientist at NASA Langley. “The Earth’s thermosphere is responding remarkably — up to an order of magnitude decrease in infrared emission/radiative cooling by some molecules.”
    The TIMED measurements show a decrease in the amount of ultraviolet radiation emitted by the Sun. In addition, the amount of infrared radiation emitted from the upper atmosphere by nitric oxide molecules has decreased by nearly a factor of 10 since early 2002. These observations imply that the upper atmosphere has cooled substantially since then. The research team expects the atmosphere to heat up again as solar activity starts to pick up in the next year.
    While this warming has no implications for climate change in the troposphere, a fundamental prediction of climate change theory is that the upper atmosphere will cool in response to increasing carbon dioxide. As the atmosphere cools the density will increase, which ultimately may impact satellite operations through increased drag over time.
    The SABER dataset is the first global, long-term, and continuous record of the Nitric oxide (NO) and Carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from the thermosphere.
    “We suggest that the dataset of radiative cooling of the thermosphere by NO and CO2 constitutes a first climate data record for the thermosphere,” says Mlynczak.
    The TIMED data provide a climate record for validation of upper atmosphere climate models, which is an essential step in making accurate predictions of climate change in the high atmosphere. SABER provides the first long-term measurements of natural variability in key terms of the upper atmosphere climate.
    “A fundamental prediction of climate change theory is that upper atmosphere will cool in response to greenhouse gases in the troposphere,” says Mlynczak. “Scientists need to validate that theory. This climate record of the upper atmosphere is our first chance to have the other side of the equation.”
    James Russell III, SABER principal investigator and co-director of the Center for Atmospheric Sciences at Hampton University in Hampton, Va., agrees adding, “The atmosphere is a coupled system. If you pick up one end of the stick, you automatically pick up the other – they’re intrinsically linked. To be as accurate as possible, scientists have to understand global change throughout the atmosphere.”
    As the TIMED mission continues, these data derived from SABER will become important in assessing long term atmospheric changes due to the increase of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere.
    TIMED is the first mission in the Solar Terrestrial Probes Program within the Heliophysics Division in NASA’s Science Mission Directorate in Washington.

    http://spacefellowship.com/news/art17227/quiet-sun-means-cooling-of-earth-s-upper-atmosphere.html

    Wyzard, January 6th, 2013 (+11UCT)

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